First Checkout

Posted by jackdoan on September 18, 2013

Quora Rahul Garg sent you a message on Quora Rahul Garg said: "Okay. Sounds good. How can I help?" To see your conversation, visit: http://www.quora.com/l/1Nbc9Ww7sCsf5RCe1rANmE6-wWyA997rHaCE0fXaYkqpVMbXHU~5ZYPmUxB7s-GNhmpMclEYjwEd3eJtybYs8V3pxwtRnA7CXXlX8lcO6k3OI3h3EPFLLY2fkvMbEzF~ecHRL7a2O9YO2Qv1 Thanks, The Quora Team To control which emails we send you, visit: Email Settings This email was sent by Quora (650 Castro Street #450, Mountain View, CA 94041). Quora is the best answer to any question. To disable all email from Quora, visit the following link: Unsubscribe. Quora <noreply@quora.com> 12:41 PM (2 hours ago) to me Quora Rahul Garg sent you a message on Quora Rahul Garg said: "By the way I think email would be a better way to communicate. My email is 313@doonschool.com" To see your conversation, visit: http://www.quora.com/l/bAlJkMKqxcPrG5Eaw3oRMMM2kQ1WdtUsKNPR3JHPktDuHzaC8Uj~AfrNcsF5zMXoyud4y2hXIYAB7Y4Qg3IMrFrGZyKneIN2vhkdSRheb6n2osQ7gQykHei04AaOmbz0aWYo2HRYj3-kOAv1.

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  • 7-8-15 I have pasted the above from Quora Rahul Garg. The old information below is from 2011  time frame. Near bottom below green bar is the current entries.   
What is my concept of heat J_Waves of J_Energy initially from the J_Mass + J_Dark Matter Mass * the speed of light ^2 :from the singularities of black holes where J_Fifth dimension ends and J_fourth dimension begins at the end of J_Fifth dimension time and the start of J_Time. The Tiny Strings of "The String Theory" are composed of the Dark Energy which radiates J_Heat the energy in the J_Waves that take the path of least resistance from the high density volume of Quarks forming the J_Waves to lower density volume and particle creation of protons and neutrons. This basic new foundation of heat is why atoms and molecules vibrate which was the former foundation of heat. All the thermodynamics based on the former foundation still exist only the new foundation under lies it.
J_Energy includes all forms of energy and the new foundation of J_Heat-Energy is transported with the newly formed heat energy in J_Waves from their creation point on out through the J_Universe.

10-18-15 Update: For the larger parts of the following collection of Prior Art pertaining to my discloser was coped unchanged from its source.

The article In Discover Magazine February 2009 pages 37 through 43 on page 37:"Stars burn gas, mostly hydrogen. All of the hydrogen gas in the universe was formed during the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago.".
The new J_foundation of J_Universe doesn't agree with "All of the hydrogen gas in the universe was formed during the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago.". Quarks forming the J_Waves to lower density volume and particle creation of protons and neutrons. Atoms formed with these also form from these J_Waves that travel from the nuclei of these atoms form electron particles. The most elementary atom being Hydrogen is created by this process. On pages 38 and 39 of this article quote "The basic model of star formation was mapped out by British astrophysicist Sir James Jeans a little over 100 years ago. Jeans began with a large cloud of interstellar gas whose inward pull of gravity perfectly balanced the outward push of pressure from its own internal heat. Jeans found that this balance was unstable. With just a nudge—from, say, the remnants of a supernova shock wave—gravity would win the tug-of-war and start the cloud’s collapsing in on itself. At the center of the cloud, matter would pile up to densities and temperatures that (scientists later realized) were high enough to allow hydrogen atoms to fuse into helium. When fusion began, a star was born.", I agree with this quote where Hydrogen is depleted and Helium is created by fusion two for one.
First after J_Waves of Quarks are formed Hydrogen atoms' Protons are formed with their electron which makeup the huge Hydrogen cloud.
5-31-09 The birth of stars from initially in J_4th Dimension see pages 40 &amp; 41 FEBUARY 2009 of DISCOVERYMAGIZEINE the 2 photos caption too the right," Far left: When Stars are born, leftover material forms a rotating disk that orbits the star. As surrounding gas and dust collapse into into the disk, some material is ejected above and below, forming powerful jets that disrupt the formation of other stars. Near left: A Spitzer Space Telescope image  of wisps in NGC 1333 a star-forming region about 1,000 light-years from earth. Able  to peer through dust and gas, Switzer captured the infant star IRAS 4B and  the protoplanetary disk that surrounds it."
J_Heat that goes out in the hydrogen atoms J_Waves in the potential energy of the huge Hydrogen cloud then released in kinetic concentrated collapse and fusion into Helium in the birth of a star.
7-03-09 This will be researched further in the formation of heaver elements in the sun.
!2-04-09 I have been recording activity  in Wordpress Personal Economy Cars and Planes of Jack L.Doan's Analogues Time &amp; Heat Continued on page 26 of #9 Blog thru page 34.
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12-21-09 I can finally update this blog probably after Xmas because I have to build a charging  cable for my plane so I can get it started in this cold weather.
12-22-09 I finally got my cable to go from the my Grand Marquis cigar lighter to the one in my Zlin Savage Classic airplane so I can charge the motorcycle battery and get it started. I have tried to use it 2 times and firs blew one in one adapter (5 amp) then the other end on this cable. because their  end polarities I reversed thinking I needed to reverse after the first 5 amp blew I Have now reversed back after the 2nd   amp blew in the other end  after I replaced the first 5amp with a 6 amp. The problem was confusing because of a cold solder joint. 
01-13-10 I've got the cable working but battery wouldn't hold the charge added so got a new battery which should arrive this evening. I got 2 new tires for my plane. Called John Shablow today and he will meet the new FAA man tomorrow and will call me after that. This FAA man has made him mad and said he was sorry it was taking so long to convert my airplane from SLSA to ELSA a downgrade but less expensive certification to maintain.
01-30-10 Found out from John that my conversion from SLSA to ELSA has been approved and next week he will get in touch with me on his schedual to come to ariz to inspect certify N808JD as ELSA and get my old SLSA certificate. when he signs off then it officially takes place. Feb. 13 th Mark Borman will fly it to Chandler air service and on Feb. 15th I will start a 3 day schedule for twice a day check out flights in it at $60 per hour for instructor.
04-15-10 N808JD Savage ELSA is now a Experimental Light Sport Cub all the paperwork was sent in a month ago and I have not heard anything from the FAA. Chandler Air Service would not fly N808JD without insurance like John Walkup told me they would when I scheduled to have it flown to Chandler Air Service. They would not put one more turn on the bungee shock cord so the main landing gear wouldn't' be so springy like they said the would but charged me $200 to straiten the side lean of the tail wheel damage of it because of the bouncy landings. I decided the only legal thing I could do was change to ELSA.
08-14-10 Working on a toung to the Wing cradel that is clamped to the lift half rings two on the rear bottom of ESLA N808JD. It is a heavier lift with the wings folded back so reinforcement of aluminum is being added to the two 2 by 4 tow with trailer hitch. Another 5 inch and two 4 inch long 1/4 inch bolts will be bought at Ace Hardware after the Saturday coffee at P52.
08-31-10 Still working on the above also have added  2 - 2 by 6 20 ft long from the hitch to the main wheels of N808JD for towing with the wings folded back.
1-06-11 I haven't been able to update this Web Page  will swicth to Intuit Sitebuilder Plus to fix my web problems.
03-06-11 Hop to get the flat bed trailer made from an old mobile home which will buit into a hanger trailer for N808JD
03-08-11 The last paragraph coppied from my wordpress website on 5-31-09 above near the top of my photo along with the previous RSS on page "about us" will now be continued there which is in wordpress this date. STARTING WITH REFERANCE TO INSIDEJOB a CD from NETFLEX from FILMMAKER Charles Ferguson on the economic meltdown of 2008 narrated by actor Matt Damon.
03-11-11   'Inside Job
From filmmaker Charles Ferguson comes this sobering; Oscar-nominated document documentary that presents in comprehensive yet cogent detail the pervasive and deep-rooted   corruption that led the global economic meltdown of 2008. Through unflinching interviews with key financial system run amok -- without accountability. Actor Matt Damon narrates. "
Iceland a democracy had low unemployment upto 2000 when they deregulate their banks caused an over heated economy that melted down in 2008.
Global credit default swap where the private companies gained with a loss to the public. The film states that it is the fault of business schools.
 September 15 2008 Lehman Brothers went bankrupt causing a global recession was no accident. In a 40 year business cycle after the global depression.
03-21-11 The wind last night blew down the aprox 3 ft wide strip of aliuninun thin coated mat from the right side top of the carport I'm keeping my N808JD Native Cub in. The frame & wheels of my hanger trailer is in front of the carport with half of its old floor torn off. It is raining this morning. The UN resolution to astablish a no fly operation against Libia our president has been dragged into he is going to addres us from Ghile S. America:
​Pres. Obama said in regard to Libia the US Military & deploymancy was considing eith UN Security Res 1973 will be transitioning its lead because of our capability to take out the anti-aircraft capability so no fly zone can be mainly done by other colition countries.
03-22-11 US F15 crashed because of mechanical failure, the two pilots bailed out and their rescue helicopter shot civilians. 
04-08-11 11:00AM in less than 10 hours the US  Government will shut down.
04-12-11 US Senate Financial Regulations LAW & DERIVATIVES. We will see if anything comes out of this. No it didn't.
10-17-11 I support the ideal of Occupy Wall Street. Reference My Word Press pages on Political (decision making process) opinions of corporation bias. 
11-07-11 Print entire site.
6-28-12 Obama health care was passed out of Superior Court as Constitutional! Bad day for House of Representatives. Shameful political action by Republicans. They lead the NRA special interest group objective of getting 
Eric Holder our Attorney General censored in the House Ethics & Criminal?  
1-22-12 worked on some miss-types above. 
6-16-12 Also on WordPress see what you get at jackdoancosmicstringtheory.com .
12-21-12 The Control (JLD_Control-Issue) is the basis of the New Town Massacre.

6-18-13  The Ran S7 (see icon on right is similar to N808JD.
 

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2-03-11 The Grove disk break in the photo on the right was not on the ready to fly but not ready to stop N808JD Zlin Cub I bought new as certified SLSA. This plane has had to have many changes uner SLSA certification to get ready to fly in the USA. After that I changed to ELSA. 2-09-11 Even fixed up the best surface to fly it off is dirt or grass runway. I am building a rugged hanger trailer that I can take to a dry lake bed or other dirt strip or grass area to unfold N808JD ELSA wings and fly.

2-26-11 The parts of the frame, wheels and floor the hanger trailer should be here at my CMI site after it is towed to DOT sometime next week.

03-06-11 Got SiteBuilder Plus and continue here. Hope to get the flat bed trailer made from an old mobile trailer which will be built into a hanger trailer for N808JD ELSA with wings folded.

07-19-11 May have to tow my trailer to DOT again because of the politics of getting the weight limit changed from 2999 to 5999 pounds which is the limit they should have put on my title with electric brakes, they didn't even look at the lights when they inspected it before

07-26-11 Got the limit changed to 5999 pounds for $4 more and the hassel woth DOT. Now tomorrow I will start building the clam-shell hanger top for this trailer at Cottonwood Smeltrr Iron Works.



The following is one of my "WordPress" Web Pages.

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Unified Feild Theory of Everything Postulates of J_Time, J_Heat

By jackbecommspeednet 

#1 J_Time is Motion through Space.



#2 J_Heat is intensified Motion & J_Time even back to one of the many black hole singularities Creation Boundary at the end of J_Fifth Dimension.



#3 J_Time is relevant to time of the forth dimension with respect to the other three dimensions of the presently scientifically proved four dimensions. J_Time is in two forms, one is in the forth dimension Time Arrow spiraling out in the universe (J_4timeArrow); two the spiraling in the (J_5timeArrow) after the J_4thDimension extent is reached in the form of J_Waves at this the greatest distance of the J_4thDimension and the greatest position of potential energy of the tiny strings of the string theory.



The Cosmic Origins of Time’s Arrow page 48 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JUNE 2008 : one of the most basic facts of life is that the future looks different from the past. But on a grand cosmological scale, they look the same BY Sean M. Carrol The Puzzle of En trophy ”Physicists encapsulate the concept time asymmetry the celebrated second law of thermodynamics: entropy in a closed system never decreases.” 



JLD Analogue of Entropy is the movement in a cycle of time from high density of heat energy to a lower density of heat energy. The different Universe’s cycle of time begins at the point where the dark energy are in the five dimensional space time pushed by gravity into the very hot center ( like in the bottom of a dark hole ) of the limit of speed of light density of energy where the tiny strings of “The String Theory are formed and in the process of JLD_Analogue of Entropy start this new Galaxy’s Time. The FourthDimensionTime in this new Galaxy’s Time J_Ether starts at this interface of the fifth dimension and the first four dimensions of JLD Analogue J_Entropy.

My analogue of electromagnetic wave compared to Walter Isaacson book’s description of Albert Einstein’s thought experiment in “EINSTEIN His Life and Universe page 114 2nd paragraph. One thing we can note with some confidence is Einsteins main starting point. He repeatedly said his path toward the theory of relativity began with his thought experiment at age 16 about what it would be like to ride at the speed of light alongside a light beam. This produced a “paradox”, he said , and it troubled him for the next ten Years:



If I pursue a beam of light with the velocity c (velocity of light in a vacuum), I should observe such a beam of light as an electromagnetic field at rest though spatially oscillating. There seems to be no such thing, however, neither on the basis of experience nor according to Maxwell’s equations. From the the very beginning it appeared to me intuitively clear that, judged from the standpoint of such an observer, everything would have to happen according to the same laws as for an observer who, relative to the earth, was at rest. For how should the first observer know or be able to determine that he is in a state of fast uniform motion? One sees this paradox the germ of the special relativity theory is already contained. 12″



From Chapter Five Notes 12. Max Planck, speech to Berlin Physical Society, Dec. 14, 1900. See Light man 2005, 3.



From Chapter Five Notes 3. Note 3. Einstein, Letter to the Royal Society on Newton’s bicentennials, Mar. 1927.



“This though experiment did not necessarily undermine the ether theory of light waves. An ether theorist could imagine a frozen light beam. But it violated Einstein’s intuition that the laws of optics should obey the principle of relativity. In other words, Maxwell’s equations, which specify the speed of light, should be the same for all observers in constant -velocity motion. The emphasis that Einstein placed on this memory indicates that the idea of a frozen light beam—or frozen electromagnetic waves—seemed instinctively wrong to him. 13″



From Chapter Five Notes 13. 13. Einstein 1949b, 46. Miller 1984, 112; Miller 1999, 50; Rynasiewicz and Renn, 5.



From Chapter Five Notes 5. For the influence of Faraday’s induction theories on Einstein, see Miller 1981, chapter 3.



J_Analogue of frozen electromagnetic wave and frozen J_Ether if a J_Wave frozen in J_Time. which is also frozen. The dynamics that are frozen comes from my concept of the path of least resistance see my former blogs and the book Einstein chapter seven page141 top paragraph:



“Planck became the first physicist to build on Einstein’s theory. In an article published in the spring of 1906, he argued that relativity conformed to the principle of least action, a foundation of physics that holds that light or any object moving between two points should follow the easiest path. 3″



The Note 3. on page 584, 3. “More precisely, the definition that Richard Feynman uses in his Lectures on Physics (Boston: Addison-Wesley,1989), 19-1 is, “Action in physics has a precise meaning. It is the time average of the kinetic energy of a particle minus the potential energy. The principle of least action then states that a particle will travel along the path that minimizes the difference between its kinetic and potential energies.” “



J_Waves of the tiny strings of the ” String Theory ” formed from the disintegrated J_Waves into the tiny strings of dark matter of the tiny strings mass and their dark energy as the arrow of time *I, went from the 4 proven dimensions into the J_Fifth dimension so that these tinyest particles propelled by J_Gravity in the J_Fifth dimension taking the path of least action from J_Potential energy to J_Kinetic energy to the center of a dark hole where the tiny strings are disintegrated andreformed in the J_Heat going from J_Fifth dimension in to the 4 proved dimensions arrow of time.



 The day before Genesis by Adam Frank attached to pages 27 & 28 of Jack L Doan’s April 2008 #8 Blog note book articles page 57 BIG IDEA 2 Time’s Arrow 1st paragraph. 



My JLD_Thought Experiment now at age 76 and not have studied Maxwell’s Equations similar to Einstein’s thought experiment in the quote at the top of this bloghad at the age of sixteen. My concept of an so called light beam that I as an observer am traveling at the speed of light at an instant when everything is frozen would be a number of J_Wave undulating 4dimensional sections of J_Photon quantum of the tiny masses of the quantum unit of this photon of the beam of light’s frequencies as it interacts withthe core strings of ether in the volume of this frozen beam’s J_Wave length.



Reading in the book Einstein by Walter Isaacson chapter 9 General Relativity on Gravity page 200 4th paragraph ” When Einstein’s early hero Ernst Mach came along in the mid nineteenth century , he debunked this notion of absolute space and argued that the inertia existed because the water in”,Newtons bucket, “was spinning relative to the rest of the matter in the universe. . indeed, the same effects would be observed if the bucket was still andtherest of the universe was rotating around it, he said. 25″.



From Einstin`e page 591 Notes,”25. Einstein, “On the foundations of the General Theory of Relativity,” Annalen der Physik



 (Mar. 6, 1918), CPAE 7:4. A vivid explanation of Newton’s bucket and how it connects to relativity is in Green 2004, 23-74. Einstein is largely responsible for inferring how Mach would regard an empty universe. See Norton 1995c; Julian Barbour, “General Relativity as a Perfectly Machian Theory,” Carl Hoefer, “Einstein”s Formulation of Mach’s Principle,” and Hurbert Goenner, “Mach’s Principle and Theories of Gravity,” all in Baarbour and Phister.”



Ernst Mach to me in the last part of the 20thcentury was my hero also. I don’t have the concept of absolute space which Ernst Mach debunked the notion of. The concept absolute space with stationary ether through out I do not believe either.My space time (J_Space-J_Time) concept is that outward spiraling in the J_Arrow of J_Time) through through the infinite orbits (levels of energy of every atom in the universe which the mass of the universe was at rest like stationary ether would be spherical of infinite radius, But since mass is never at rest as long as there is any J_Heat it is more disc like. The relative motion of one group of atoms or atom relative to another would cause the energy or tiny strings of the “String Theory” mass rotating in these orbits of both atoms and or groups of atoms in their inertial systems either microscopic or macroscopic to produce J_Inertia and J_Gravity.



From Einstein page 220 ” Ruv-1/2 guv R = 8 pi Tuv The left side of the equation starts with the term Ruv, which is the Ricci tensor he embraced earlier. The term guv is the all-important metric tensor, and the term R is the trace of Ricci tensor called Ricci scalar. Together, this left side of the equation — which is now known as the Einstein tensor can be written simply as Guv — compresses together all of the information about how the geometry of space-time is warped and curved by objects. 



The right side describes the movement of matter in the gravitational field. The interplay between the two sides shows how objects curve space-time and how , in turn , this curvature affects the motion of objects. As physicist John Wheeler has put it, “Matter tells space-time how how to curve, and curved space tells matter how to move.”83″



From Einstein page 595 83 “Overbye, 293; Aczel 1999,117; archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/Einstein Equations.html#intro. A variation of Wheeler’s quote is on p. 5 of the book he coauthored with Charles Msner and Kip Thorne, Gravitation.”



 My concept of J_Gravity my #4 Analogue is similar to the above but more specific and detailed. J_Spacetime is the infinite spiraling out of J_Arrow of time through the infinite orbits, J_Energy levels, of each atom in the universe which can be warped from spherical to more disc like geometry. J_Spacetime is curved 4 dimensionally J_Spacetimefabric of J_Mass ( matter–mass) of the tiny strings of the String Theory” J_Waves core J_Ether cosmic strings. My concept is like Ernst Mach andJohnWheeler with Newton’s laws in that the mass of the tiny strings of the “String Theory”in the J_Waves and the J_Energy in the J_Ether cores of J_Waves spiraling out in the more disc shape taking the path of least resistance (or path of least action) warping of J_Spacetime in J_Arrow of time so that the infinite orbits J_Energy levels of all the atoms in the J_Matter of J_Universe so that the J_Inertia and J_Momentum of these infinite number of tiny J_Masses of all the J_Matter in the see J_Cosmic strings of the J_Universe at their average distant of their radii in light years.



Einstein chapter 9 page 220 quote continued: “Thus is staged a cosmic tango, as captured by another physicist, Brian Green:



Space and time become players in the evolving cosmos. hey come alive. Matter here causes space to warp there, which causes matter over here to move, which causes space way over there to warp even more, and so on.General relativity provides the choreography for an entwined cosmic dance of space, time, matter, and energy. 84 from Greene 2004, 74.



At last Einstein had equations that were truly covariant and thus a theory that incorporated, at least to his satisfaction, all forms of motion, whether it is inertial, accelerated, rotational, or arbitrary. As he proclaimed in the formal presentation of his theory that he published the following March in the Annalen der Physik, “the general laws of nature are to be expressed by equations that hold true for all systems of coordinates, that is they are covariant with respect to any substitutions whatever.” 85 from page 595 “85. Einstein, “The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity,” Annalen der Physik (Mar. 20 1916), CPAE 6:30.”



From Einstein page 223 3rd paragraph. ” Newton had bequeathed to Einstein universe in which time had an absolute existence that tick-tocked along independent of objects and observers, and in which space likewise had an absolute existence. Gravity was thought to be a force that masses exerted on one another rather mysteriously across empty space. Within this framework, objects obeyed mechanical laws that had proved remarkably accurate –almost perfect–in explaining everything from the orbits of the planets , to the diffusion of gases , to to the jiggling of molecules , to the propagation of sound (though not light) waves.



With the special theory of relativity, Einstein had shown that space and time did not have independent existences, but instead formed a fabric of space-time. Now, with his general version of the theory, this fabric of space-time became not merely a container for objects and events. Instead its own dynamics that were determined by, and in turn helped to determine, the motion of objects within it–just as the fabric of a trampoline will curve and ripple as a bowling ball and some billiard balls roll across it, and in turn the dynamic curving and rippling of the trampoline fabric will determine the path of the rolling balls and cause the billiard balls to move toward the bowling ball.



The curving and rippling fabric of space-time explained gravity , its equivalence to acceleration , and, Einstein asserted, the general relativity of all forms of motion. 92″ from Einstein page 596.



Einstein 250 bottom paragraph on Black Hole, “What would that mean? In such a situation, nothing within the Schwarzschild radius would be able to escape the gravitational pull, not even light. or any other form of radiation. Time would also be part of the warpage as well, dilated to zero. In other words, a traveler nearing the Schwarzschild radius would appear, to someone on the outside, to freeze to a halt.”



The Black hole ( J_Black hole ) is one of the main features of the endof J_Fifth dimension where J_Time is reset to zero and J_Arrow of time passes through the bottom of this one of billions of J_Black holes into the start of new ( one through four dimensions that are already proved. This full disclosure of my thought experiment on Jack L. Doan Theory of Everything on the recycling of mass-energy, J_Matter.



The billions of large J_Black holes and the trillion trillions of small J_Black holes receive the inward spiraling mass-energy, Jmatter that had reached the outward spiraling apex of the J_Waves from the one through four provendimensionspassing into J_Fifth dimension moving from higher pressure density in taking the path of least action andleastresistance with the majority of these infinite number of the tiny strings of the ” String Theory “, kinetic J_Energy in these J_Waves cosmic strings changed to potential J_Energy except for J_Heat in the micro wave radiant energy of their little big bangs at the endof their outward spiral. J_Gravity in the this start of J_Arrow of time in this J_Fifthdimension of J_Space-J_Time J_Ether cores of J_Waves cosmic strings of the tiny strings of the “String Theory at this J_Time is different because the cosmological constant component of J_Gravity that caused the universe to expandinthe one through four proved dimensions is not effective in this J_Fifthdimension so these inward spiraling J_Fifth dimension J_Waves taking the path of least action andleast resistance without the cosmic constant effect of J_Fifth dimension J_Gravity accelerates these tiny strings of the “String Theory” into at the end of their travel a very tight spiral that inturn creates very high pressure of J_Gravity into J_Black holes.



10-26-08 Scientific American October 2008 Page 44 article Follow the BOUNCING Universe is similar to my concepts but my Theory of Everything has these regeneration processes accruing continuously not a very long cycle of time. Therefor my theory appears to be completely different than the article and the other articles it references.



10-28-08 the obsession of cosmology and physics to reduce the universe to 1 instant of time like the big Bang or big bounce is not in JLD_Theory o0f everything. Black holes are continuously adsorbing mass and energy and creating mass and energy and mass of our universe. The JLD 4th dimension arrow of time is the arrow of time out from the black holes and the JLD_5th dimension arrow of time in to the black holes.



01-25-09 The end of this part in #8 Blog notebook is on page 46.



After reading the first similar to my concepts feed back from WordPress I insert the Scientific American information on Naked Singularities article starting on page 36:



“Cosmic Censor – Event horizons were supposed to have been the easy part about black holes. Singularities are clearly mysterious. They are places where the strength of gravity becomes infinite and the known laws of physics break down.”



In my concept a singularity is the endof J_Fifth dimension of the J_Time arrow and the start of J_Fourth andJ_Fifth dimensions the inverse of J_Time arrow. There are 2 parts to J_Time Arrow. The outward spiraling J_Fourth dimension J_4thTime. The inward spiraling J_Fith dimension J_5th-Time.



The #2 heading at top of this blog ( heat ) is disclosed :



The Tiny Strings of The String Theory are at their highest rate of vibration at this point of the start of J_4thTime Arrow at the end point of the J_5thTime Arrow in the many singularities in their black holes. J_Heat contains these very high energy vibrations of these tiny strings of The String Theory as they form J_Waves in taking their path of least resistance from high density to lower density along the J_4th dimension J_4Time arrow spiraling out from the J_5Time’s singularity.



Heat is the most elementary energy in the universe. In heats most elementary form is in the frequency of vibration and amplitude of the tiny strings of the string theory. These string’s in the form of Jack L. Doan’s J_Waves are transported throughout the J_Universe.



Now a new study of astronomical data only recently available hints at a possible answer: The universe is finite and bears a rough resemblance to a soccer ball or, more accurately, a dodecahedron, a 12-sided volume bounded by pentagons. 



If proven by further evidence and scrutiny, the model would represent a major discovery about the nature of the cosmos. 



“What makes it exciting now is it’s not a matter of idle speculation,” said Jeffrey Weeks, a freelance mathematician in Canton, New York, and study co-author. “There’s real data to look at and the possibility of getting a definite answer.” 



Weeks, recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship or so-called “genius award,” arrived at the model with a team of French cosmologists while studying cosmic background radiation observed by NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). 



With a microwave antenna pointed into deep space and shielded from local interference emanating from the sun, Earth, and moon, the spacecraft has recorded the clearest soundtrack to date of the microwave radiation echo of the Big Bang, the event most scientists believe created the universe. 



Cosmic Afterglow 



Like the visible light of distant stars and galaxies, cosmic background radiation allows scientists to peer into the past to the time when the universe was in its infancy. Density fluctuations in this radiation can also tell scientists much about the physical nature of space. 



NASA released the first WMAP cosmic background radiation data, collected since October 2001, in February. 



Combing through those observations, Weeks and his colleagues found that the most telling information supplied by WMAP was, in fact, the resounding echo of what was missing. Density fluctuations on the largest scale were far weaker than expected, a gap Weeks and colleagues say is best explained by a finite universe. 



To illustrate the concept, Weeks points to the analogy of an ocean and a bathtub. While the ocean (an infinite universe) can support 40-foot-long waves, a bathtub (the finite universe) is simply too small. The bathtub cannot support waves longer than the length of the tub itself. Moreover, observations of the cosmic background radiation enabled Weeks and his colleagues to posit possible shapes for the universe to explain its fluctuating density. The researchers could then test their models through mathematical proofs against the microwave data gathered by the WMAP satellite. 



Among cosmologists, three broad categories vie as the most likely shapes to fit the cosmos: flat, negatively curved (saddle-shaped), and positively curved (spherical) space. 



From WebSearch Gravity and entangelment:



“Now a new study of astronomical data only recently available hints at a possible answer: The universe is finite and bears a rough resemblance to a soccer ball or, more accurately, a dodecahedron, a 12-sided volume bounded by pentagons. 



If proven by further evidence and scrutiny, the model would represent a major discovery about the nature of the cosmos. 



“What makes it exciting now is it’s not a matter of idle speculation,” said Jeffrey Weeks, a freelance mathematician in Canton, New York, and study co-author. “There’s real data to look at and the possibility of getting a definite answer.” 



Weeks, recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship or so-called “genius award,” arrived at the model with a team of French cosmologists while studying cosmic background radiation observed by NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). 



With a microwave antenna pointed into deep space and shielded from local interference emanating from the sun, Earth, and moon, the spacecraft has recorded the clearest soundtrack to date of the microwave radiation echo of the Big Bang, the event most scientists believe created the universe.



“The String Theory”by George Musser. Alpha, 2008



Okay, so you’re not an idiot. You’ll still like this guide to string theory. First, the easy-to-follow review of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Standard Model, the possibility of time travel, and much more. Then, the way alternatives to string theory play a role. And, crucially, the fluent understanding of the concepts, conveyed in everyday, even breezy, language. String theory, the leading proposal for unifying relativity and quantum theory, interprets subatomic particles as tiny vibrating strings. Tiny, Musser (who is an editor and writer at this magazine) emphasizes, is really tiny. The relation of a string to an atom is the same as that of a human to the entire visible universe.

The next few years will be critical for string theory. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), “the world’s most powerful and most expensive hammer,” will begin to smash particles into bits to see what they are made of and to give new types a chance to form. But despite the promise of the LHC, unification, Musser warns, won’t be a matter of solving equations and filling in details. Finishing the job will require new conceptual input.



My conceptual imput is that Dark Energy is the J_Wave Cosmic String of the tiny strings of “The String Theory”.

Dark Universe BY MICHELLE PRESS FROM WWW.sCIaM.COM/REVIEWS EINSTEIN’S HUNT FOR DARK MATTER AND DARK ENE5RGY IN THE UNIVERSE by Evalyn Gates. W. W. Norton, 2009 9425.95)

“Not to long ago , Gates begins, astrophysicists, thrilled with bigger and better telescopes ” settled in to appreciate the unprecedented clarity of their view of the cosmos, only to find that their new instruments reveled a Universe that didn’t act at at all the way it was supposed to.” Instead that the stars and galaxies we see are only a small part of the matter that exists. The remainder, composed of new kinds of particles called dark matter and the even stranger dark energy, is invisible to their telescopes.

Fortunately, as Gates (an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago) details, scientists can use space it self as a telescope to search for dark matter and dark energy. According to Einstein, mas of any kind warps space just as every planet and star creates a “dimple” in space, so dark matter also deforms the space around it. This warping acts as a gravitational lens–the “telescope” of the book’s title–to bend and deflect light in the same way that lenses made of glass or plastic do. Using gravitational lensing, scientist have already discovered extra solar planets and black holes and have reconstructed the collision of two giant clusters of galaxies. Researchers now have the potential, Gates maintains, to unveil dark matter and dark energy and to find new clues to the mystery of what the universe is made of.”



My concept of this lensing is as follows: J_Lensing;My concept of gravity is different from Einstein's three dimensional warped plane. The J_Lensing is in my concept of gravity (J_Gravity where J_Dark Mater and J_Dark energy where J_DE = J_DM * J_DE^2) J_Dark ether formed by J_Dark waves is warped by J_Gravity

03-11-11 Brian Green's PBS NOVA program Fabric of the Cosmos see page 86 of my BASIC notebook #9 BLOG s7 and My Face book Web Page Above.

​11-07-11 Print entire site.

1-22-12 closed the large gaps above.

3-07-12 Watched the PBS How the universe was created I agreed except my J waves would be substituted for particles in the beginning after the big bang. 

3-10-13 copy to woordpress TOE1O



My analogue of electromagnetic wave compared to Walter Isaacson book’s description of Albert Einstein’s thought experiment in “EINSTEIN His Life and Universe page 114 2ndparagraph. One thing we can note with some confidence is Einatein’smain starting point. He repeatedly said his pathtoward the theory of relativity began with his thought experiment at age 16 about what it would be like to ride at the speed of light alongside a light beam. This produced a “paradox”, he said , and it troubled him for the next ten Years:



If I pursue a beam of light with the velocity c (velocity of light in a vacuum), I should observe such a beam of light as an electromagnetic field at rest though spatially oscillating. There seems to be no such thing, however, neither on the basis of experience nor according to Maxwell’s equations. From the the very beginning it appeared to me intuitively clear that, judged from the standpoint of such an observer, everything would have to happen according to the same laws as for an observer who, relative to the earth, was at rest. For how should the first observer know or be able to determine that he is in a state of fast uniform motion? One sees this paradox the germ of the special relativity theory is already contained. 12″



From Chapter Five Notes 12. Max Planck, speech to Berlin Physical Society, Dec. 14, 1900. See Light man 2005, 3.



From Chapter Five Notes 3. Note 3. Einstein, Letter to the Royal Society on Newton’s bicentennials, Mar. 1927.



“This though experiment did not necessarily undermine the ether theory of light waves. An ether theorist could imagine a frozen light beam. But it violated Einstein’s intuition that the laws of optics should obey the principle of relativity. In other words, Maxwell’s equations, which specify the speed of light, should be the same for all observers in constant -velocity motion. The emphasis that Einstein placed on this memory indicates that the idea of a frozen light beam—or frozen electromagnetic waves—seemed instinctively wrong to him. 13″



From Chapter Five Notes 13. 13. Einstein 1949b, 46. Miller 1984, 112; Miller 1999, 50; Rynasiewicz and Renn, 5.



From Chapter Five Notes 5. For the influence of Faraday’s induction theories on Einstein, see Miller 1981, chapter 3.



J_Analogue of frozen electromagnetic wave and frozen J_Ether if a J_Wave frozen in J_Time. which is also frozen. The dynamics that are frozen comes from my concept of the path of least resistance see my former blogs and the book Einstein chapter seven page141 top paragraph:



“Planck became the first physicist to build on Einstein’s theory. In an article published in the spring of 1906, he argued that relativity conformed to the principle of least action, a foundation of physics that holds that light or any object moving between two points should follow the easiest path. 3″



The Note 3. on page 584, 3. “More precisely, the definition that Richard Feynman uses in his Lectures on Physics (Boston: Addison-Wesley,1989), 19-1 is, “Action in physics has a precise meaning. It is the time average of the kinetic energy of a particle minus the potential energy. The principle of least action then states that a particle will travel along the path that minimizes the difference between its kinetic and potential energies.” “



J_Waves of the tiny strings of the ” String Theory ” formed from the disintegrated J_Waves into the tiny strings of dark matter of the tiny strings mass and their dark energy as the arrow of time *I, went from the 4 provendimensions into the J_Fifth dimensionsothat these tinyestparticles propelled by J_Gravity in the J_Fifth dimension taking the path of least action from J_Potential energy to J_Kinetic energy to the center of a dark hole where the tiny strings are disintegrated andreformed in the J_Heat going from J_Fifth dimension in to the 4 proved dimensions arrow of time.



 The day before Genesis by Adam Frank attached to pages 27 & 28 of Jack L Doan’s April 2008 #8 Blog note book articles page 57 BIG IDEA 2 Time’s Arrow 1st paragraph. 



My JLD_Thought Experiment now at age 76 and not have studied Maxwell’s Equations similar to Einstein’s thought experiment in the quote at the top of this bloghad at the age of sixteen. My concept of an so called light beam that I as an observer am traveling at the speed of light at an instant when everything is frozen would be a number of J_Wave undulating 4dimensional sections of J_Photon quantum of the tiny masses of the quantum unit of this photon of the beam of light’s frequencies as it interacts withthe core strings of ether in the volume of this frozen beam’s J_Wave length.



Reading in the book Einstein by Walter Isaacson chapter 9 General Relativity on Gravity page 200 4th paragraph ” When Einstein’s early hero Ernst Mach came along in the mid nineteenth century , he debunked this notion of absolute space and argued that the inertia existed because the water in”,Newtons bucket, “was spinning relative to the rest of the matter in the universe. . indeed, the same effects would be observed if the bucket was still andtherest of the universe was rotating around it, he said. 25″.



From Einstin`e page 591 Notes,”25. Einstein, “On the foundations of the General Theory of Relativity,” Annalen der Physik



 (Mar. 6, 1918), CPAE 7:4. A vivid explanation of Newton’s bucket and how it connects to relativity is in Green 2004, 23-74. Einstein is largely responsible for inferring how Mach would regard an empty universe. See Norton 1995c; Julian Barbour, “General Relativity as a Perfectly Machian Theory,” Carl Hoefer, “Einstein”s Formulation of Mach’s Principle,” and Hurbert Goenner, “Mach’s Principle and Theories of Gravity,” all in Baarbour and Phister.”



Ernst Mach to me in the last part of the 20thcentury was my hero also. I don’t have the concept of absolute space which Ernst Mach debunked the notion of. The concept absolute space with stationary ether through out I do not believe either.My space time (J_Space-J_Time) concept is that outward spiraling in the J_Arrow of J_Time) through through the infinite orbits (levels of energy of every atom in the universe which the mass of the universe was at rest like stationary ether would be spherical of infinite radius, But since mass is never at rest as long as there is any J_Heat it is more disc like. The relative motion of one group of atoms or atom relative to another would cause the energy or tiny strings of the “String Theory” mass rotating in these orbits of both atoms and or groups of atoms in their inertial systems either microscopic or macroscopic to produce J_Inertia and J_Gravity.



From Einstein page 220 ” Ruv-1/2 guv R = 8 pi Tuv The left side of the equation starts with the term Ruv, which is the Ricci tensor he embraced earlier. The term guv is the all-important metric tensor, and the term R is the trace of Ricci tensor called Ricci scalar. Together, this left side of the equation — which is now known as the Einstein tensor can be written simply as Guv — compresses together all of the information about how the geometry of space-time is warped and curved by objects. 



The right side describes the movement of matter in the gravitational field. The interplay between the two sides shows how objects curve space-time and how , in turn , this curvature affects the motion of objects. As physicist John Wheeler has put it, “Matter tells space-time how how to curve, and curved space tells matter how to move.”83″



From Einstein page 595 83 “Overbye, 293; Aczel 1999,117; archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/Einstein Equations.html#intro. A variation of Wheeler’s quote is on p. 5 of the book he coauthored with Charles Msner and Kip Thorne, Gravitation.”



 My concept of J_Gravity my #4 Analogue is similar to the above but more specific and detailed. J_Spacetime is the infinite spiraling out of J_Arrow of time through the infinite orbits, J_Energy levels, of each atom in the universe which can be warped from spherical to more disc like geometry. J_Spacetime is curved 4 dimensionally J_Spacetimefabric of J_Mass ( matter–mass) of the tiny strings of the String Theory” J_Waves core J_Ether cosmic strings. My concept is like Ernst Mach andJohnWheeler with Newton’s laws in that the mass of the tiny strings of the “String Theory”in the J_Waves and the J_Energy in the J_Ether cores of J_Waves spiraling out in the more disc shape taking the path of least resistance (or path of least action) warping of J_Spacetime in J_Arrow of time so that the infinite orbits J_Energy levels of all the atoms in the J_Matter of J_Universe so that the J_Inertia and J_Momentum of these infinite number of tiny J_Masses of all the J_Matter in the see J_Cosmic strings of the J_Universe at their average distant of their radii in light years.



Einstein chapter 9 page 220 quote continued: “Thus is staged a cosmic tango, as captured by another physicist, Brian Green:



Space and time become players in the evolving cosmos. hey come alive. Matter here causes space to warp there, which causes matter over here to move, which causes space way over there to warp even more, and so on.General relativity provides the choreography for an entwined cosmic dance of space, time, matter, and energy. 84 from Greene 2004, 74.



At last Einstein had equations that were truly covariant and thus a theory that incorporated, at least to his satisfaction, all forms of motion, whether it is inertial, accelerated, rotational, or arbitrary. As he proclaimed in the formal presentation of his theory that he published the following March in the Annalen der Physik, “the general laws of nature are to be expressed by equations that hold true for all systems of coordinates, that is they are covariant with respect to any substitutions whatever.” 85 from page 595 “85. Einstein, “The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity,” Annalen der Physik (Mar. 20 1916), CPAE 6:30.”



From Einstein page 223 3rd paragraph. ” Newton had bequeathed to Einstein universe in which time had an absolute existence that tick-tocked along independent of objects and observers, and in which space likewise had an absolute existence. Gravity was thought to be a force that masses exerted on one another rather mysteriously across empty space. Within this framework, objects obeyed mechanical laws that had proved remarkably accurate –almost perfect–in explaining everything from the orbits of the planets , to the diffusion of gases , to to the jiggling of molecules , to the propagation of sound (though not light) waves.



With the special theory of relativity, Einstein had shown that space and time did not have independent existences, but instead formed a fabric of space-time. Now, with his general version of the theory, this fabric of space-time became not merely a container for objects and events. Instead its own dynamics that were determined by, and in turn helped to determine, the motion of objects within it–just as the fabric of a trampoline will curve and ripple as a bowling ball and some billiard balls roll across it, and in turn the dynamic curving and rippling of the trampoline fabric will determine the path of the rolling balls and cause the billiard balls to move toward the bowling ball.



The curving and rippling fabric of space-time explained gravity , its equivalence to acceleration , and, Einstein asserted, the general relativity of all forms of motion. 92″ from Einstein page 596.



Einstein 250 bottom paragraph on Black Hole, “What would that mean? In such a situation, nothing within the Schwarzschild radius would be able to escape the gravitational pull, not even light. or any other form of radiation. Time would also be part of the warpage as well, dilated to zero. In other words, a traveler nearing the Schwarzschild radius would appear, to someone on the outside, to freeze to a halt.”



The Black hole ( J_Black hole ) is one of the main features of the endof J_Fifth dimension where J_Time is reset to zero and J_Arrow of time passes through the bottom of this one of billions of J_Black holes into the start of new ( one through four dimensions that are already proved. This full disclosure of my thought experiment on Jack L. Doan Theory of Everything on the recycling of mass-energy, J_Matter.



The billions of large J_Black holes and the trillion trillions of small J_Black holes receive the inward spiraling mass-energy, Jmatter that had reached the outward spiraling apex of the J_Waves from the one through four provendimensionspassing into J_Fifth dimension moving from higher pressure density in taking the path of least action andleastresistance with the majority of these infinite number of the tiny strings of the ” String Theory “, kinetic J_Energy in these J_Waves cosmic strings changed to potential J_Energy except for J_Heat in the micro wave radiant energy of their little big bangs at the endof their outward spiral. J_Gravity in the this start of J_Arrow of time in this J_Fifthdimension of J_Space-J_Time J_Ether cores of J_Waves cosmic strings of the tiny strings of the “String Theory at this J_Time is different because the cosmological constant component of J_Gravity that caused the universe to expandinthe one through four proved dimensions is not effective in this J_Fifthdimension so these inward spiraling J_Fifth dimension J_Waves taking the path of least action andleast resistance without the cosmic constant effect of J_Fifth dimension J_Gravity accelerates these tiny strings of the “String Theory” into at the end of their travel a very tight spiral that inturn creates very high pressure of J_Gravity into J_Black holes.



10-26-08 Scientific American October 2008 Page 44 article Follow the BOUNCING Universe is similar to my concepts but my Theory of Everything has these regeneration processes accruing continuously not a very long cycle of time. Therefor my theory appears to be completely different than the article and the other articles it references.



10-28-08 the obsession of cosmology and physics to reduce the universe to 1 instant of time like the big Bang or big bounce is not in JLD_Theory o0f everything. Black holes are continuously adsorbing mass and energy and creating mass and energy and mass of our universe. The JLD 4th dimension arrow of time is the arrow of time out from the black holes and the JLD_5th dimension arrow of time in to the black holes.



01-25-09 The end of this part in #8 Blog notebook is on page 46.



After reading the first similar to my concepts feed back from WordPress I insert the Scientific American information on Naked Singularities article starting on page 36:



“Cosmic Censor – Event horizons were supposed to have been the easy part about black holes. Singularities are clearly mysterious. They are places where the strength of gravity becomes infinite and the known laws of physics break down.”



In my concept a singularity is the endof J_Fifth dimension of the J_Time arrow and the start of J_Fourth andJ_Fifth dimensions the inverse of J_Time arrow. There are 2 parts to J_Time Arrow. The outward spiraling J_Fourth dimension J_4thTime. The inward spiraling J_Fith dimension J_5th-Time.



The #2 heading at top of this blog ( heat ) is disclosed :



The Tiny Strings of The String Theory are at their highest rate of vibration at this point of the start of J_4thTime Arrow at the end point of the J_5thTime Arrow in the many singularities in their black holes. J_Heat contains these very high energy vibrations of these tiny strings of The String Theory as they form J_Waves in taking their path of least resistance from high density to lower density along the J_4th dimension J_4Time arrow spiraling out from the J_5Time’s singularity.



Heat is the most elementary energy in the universe. In heats most elementary form is in the frequency of vibration and amplitude of the tiny strings of the string theory. These string’s in the form of Jack L. Doan’s J_Waves are transported throughout the J_Universe.



Now a new study of astronomical data only recently available hints at a possible answer: The universe is finite and bears a rough resemblance to a soccer ball or, more accurately, a dodecahedron, a 12-sided volume bounded by pentagons. 



If proven by further evidence and scrutiny, the model would represent a major discovery about the nature of the cosmos. 



“What makes it exciting now is it’s not a matter of idle speculation,” said Jeffrey Weeks, a freelance mathematician in Canton, New York, and study co-author. “There’s real data to look at and the possibility of getting a definite answer.” 



Weeks, recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship or so-called “genius award,” arrived at the model with a team of French cosmologists while studying cosmic background radiation observed by NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). 



With a microwave antenna pointed into deep space and shielded from local interference emanating from the sun, Earth, and moon, the spacecraft has recorded the clearest soundtrack to date of the microwave radiation echo of the Big Bang, the event most scientists believe created the universe. 



Cosmic Afterglow 



Like the visible light of distant stars and galaxies, cosmic background radiation allows scientists to peer into the past to the time when the universe was in its infancy. Density fluctuations in this radiation can also tell scientists much about the physical nature of space. 



NASA released the first WMAP cosmic background radiation data, collected since October 2001, in February. 



Combing through those observations, Weeks and his colleagues found that the most telling information supplied by WMAP was, in fact, the resounding echo of what was missing. Density fluctuations on the largest scale were far weaker than expected, a gap Weeks and colleagues say is best explained by a finite universe. 



To illustrate the concept, Weeks points to the analogy of an ocean and a bathtub. While the ocean (an infinite universe) can support 40-foot-long waves, a bathtub (the finite universe) is simply too small. The bathtub cannot support waves longer than the length of the tub itself. Moreover, observations of the cosmic background radiation enabled Weeks and his colleagues to posit possible shapes for the universe to explain its fluctuating density. The researchers could then test their models through mathematical proofs against the microwave data gathered by the WMAP satellite. 



Among cosmologists, three broad categories vie as the most likely shapes to fit the cosmos: flat, negatively curved (saddle-shaped), and positively curved (spherical) space. 



From WebSearch Gravity and entangelment:



“Now a new study of astronomical data only recently available hints at a possible answer: The universe is finite and bears a rough resemblance to a soccer ball or, more accurately, a dodecahedron, a 12-sided volume bounded by pentagons. 



If proven by further evidence and scrutiny, the model would represent a major discovery about the nature of the cosmos. 



“What makes it exciting now is it’s not a matter of idle speculation,” said Jeffrey Weeks, a freelance mathematician in Canton, New York, and study co-author. “There’s real data to look at and the possibility of getting a definite answer.” 

Weeks, recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship or so-called “genius award,” arrived at the model with a team of French cosmologists while studying cosmic background radiation observed by NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). 

With a microwave antenna pointed into deep space and shielded from local interference emanating from the sun, Earth, and moon, the spacecraft has recorded the clearest soundtrack to date of the microwave radiation echo of the Big Bang, the event most scientists believe created the universe.

“The String Theory”by George Musser. Alpha, 2008

Okay, so you’re not an idiot. You’ll still like this guide to string theory. First, the easy-to-follow review of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Standard Model, the possibility of time travel, and much more. Then, the way alternatives to string theory play a role. And, crucially, the fluent understanding of the concepts, conveyed in everyday, even breezy, language. String theory, the leading proposal for unifying relativity and quantum theory, interprets subatomic particles as tiny vibrating strings. Tiny, Musser (who is an editor and writer at this magazine) emphasizes, is really tiny. The relation of a string to an atom is the same as that of a human to the entire visible universe.

The next few years will be critical for string theory. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), “the world’s most powerful and most expensive hammer,” will begin to smash particles into bits to see what they are made of and to give new types a chance to form. But despite the promise of the LHC, unification, Musser warns, won’t be a matter of solving equations and filling in details. Finishing the job will require new conceptual input.

My conceptual imput is that Dark Energy is the J_Wave Cosmic String of the tiny strings of “The String Theory”.

Dark Universe BY MICHELLE PRESS FROM WWW.sCIaM.COM/REVIEWS EINSTEIN’S HUNT FOR DARK MATTER AND DARK ENE5RGY IN THE UNIVERSE by Evalyn Gates. W. W. Norton, 2009 9425.95)

“Not to long ago , Gates begins, astrophysicists, thrilled with bigger and better telescopes ” settled in to appreciate the unprecedented clarity of their view of the cosmos, only to find that their new instruments reveled a Universe that didn’t act at at all the way it was supposed to.” Instead that the stars and galaxies we see are only a small part of the matter that exists. The remainder, composed of new kinds of particles called dark matter and the even stranger dark energy, is invisible to their telescopes.

Fortunately, as Gates (an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago) details, scientists can use space it self as a telescope to search for dark matter and dark energy. According to Einstein, mas of any kind warps space just as every planet and star creates a “dimple” in space, so dark matter also deforms the space around it. This warping acts as a gravitational lens–the “telescope” of the book’s title–to bend and deflect light in the same way that lenses made of glass or plastic do. Using gravitational lensing, scientist have already discovered extra solar planets and black holes and have reconstructed the collision of two giant clusters of galaxies. Researchers now have the potential, Gates maintains, to unveil dark matter and dark energy and to find new clues to the mystery of what the universe is made of.”

My concept of this lensing is as follows: J_Lensing;My concept of gravity is different from Einstein's three dimensional warped plane. The J_Lensing is in my concept of gravity (J_Gravity where J_Dark Mater and J_Dark energy where J_DE = J_DM * J_DE^2) J_Dark ether formed by J_Dark waves is warped by J_Gravity

03-11-11 Brian Green's PBS NOVA program Fabric of the Cosmos see page 86 of my BASIC notebook #9 BLOG s7 and My Face book Web Page Above.

​11-07-11 Print entire site.

1-22-12 closed the large gaps above.

3-07-12 Watched the PBS How the universe was created I agreed except my J waves would be substituted for particles in the beginning after the big bang. 

3-10-13 copy to woordpress TOE1O

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7-7-15 Copied from Quora:

 I have made a new theory regarding special relativity, cosmology and quantum mechanics. I am still 14 so I do not know how to write it in a mathematical way but I have all the proofs in visual manner which show how energy, mass and time were formed. How do I publish without sufficient support?
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Arpan SahaArpan Saha, Student of Physics.
363 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Peter Bondy, Coolo Guyo, Christopher Macca, (more)
There is on one hand the answer you are looking for, and on the other hand, the answer that I based on my own experiences as a 14-year-old believe that you need to hear.

First the answer you're looking for. Even though arXiv requires institutional affiliation or endorsement by an already established scientist, actual peer-reviewed journals don't, for the reason that peer review takes care of the quality control. Your submission will first be very quickly reviewed by an editor who has some degree of expertise in the field in question, and then, if they find it meriting further attention, sent to two or three (anonymous) referees who are full-fledged experts in the field. They may recommend its rejection, or acceptance as it is, or acceptance with modifications. The last case leads to a back-and-forth exchange in which you tweak or rewrite your manuscript so as to incorporate the suggestions they make, until everyone's happy.  If it gets to this point, congratulations, your manuscript is accepted and you are a published author.

Here are a couple of journals that may be relevant to the topic you've mentioned. In each of these cases, you'll easily find a submission link via which you can proceed to submit your manuscript.

Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP)
Physical Review D
Physical Review Letters
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Communications in Mathematical Physics
Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics
Annals of Physics
International Journal of Modern Physics A
Foundations of Physics

And here, you'll find a list of potentially predatory publishers you ought to avoid. Also, as others have pointed out, give viXra a wide berth.

Now, the answer you need to hear. Please note that this isn't meant to be dismissive, but rather what I would say if I were able to go back in time and address my younger self.

Firstly, the mathematics that you correctly recognise as being standard fare in physics is not an attempt to embellish one's work with more gravity and seriousness in order to impress peers. Rather, it serves the vital purpose of allowing you to think clearly about things that are very hard to see. Of course, intuition plays an extremely important role in a scientist's life and it's often what sets apart the luminary from the everyman, but that intuition doesn't fall from the sky. It needs to be painstakingly built by working through mathematical details, and unless you're willing to do this, you're going to sound a lot like someone who says 'I have a design for a perpetual motion machine, but I am not very familiar with thermodynamics'. Thermodynamics was essentially invented in order to help us think clearly about what is energetically possible and what isn't, and unless you address how your design circumvents the second law, you're not going to find takers.

But if I read your question correctly, you are actually willing to put in all the hard work. That is good news, because with that acknowledgment, you raise yourself above those who are often referred to as crackpots and enter the realm of the scientist. Now, I assure you that scientists spend a lot of time being confused, which is why I always think that it's an excellent idea to befriend people with greater mathematical background and/or physical insight than you. If you have friends or relatives who are currently in, or have been through grad school, you should certainly talk to them about your ideas. Or if that option is unavailable, there is always Quora and Physics Stack Exchange, whose users would only be too eager to answer all your queries.

But what if they steal your idea and publish it before you do? Well, I can tell you from experience that developing an idea from the scratch to a full-fledged manuscript is a process that can consume the better part of a year. And that too, if you actually see it through to the very end, because in accord with what Sahal pointed out in his answer, scientists much more experienced than you fool themselves all the time only to realise several months in that they had made a mistake.

Which brings me to my final point: the importance of being able to find time to understand something without the pressure to publish.  It's a luxury that gets scarcer as you grow up and thus, certainly something that you shouldn't squander at this age, when not publishing regularly won't be held against you. You can afford to spend your time exploring blind alleys and examining all the ways in which your intuition can be wrong without having to worry about whether you'll find a post-doctoral opening waiting for you at the end of the tunnel. Make the most of it. Sahal and Souradeep have already mentioned 't Hooft's page on how to become a (good) theoretical physicist; you'll find that 't Hooft has painstakingly detailed out everything you'll need to know and resources you'll find useful (click on the links provided on the left) in order to get anywhere close to the frontier of human understanding.

It's a long journey, but it's every bit worth savouring. Good luck.
 
Updated 6 Mar. 26,282 views.
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Sahal KaushikSahal Kaushik, Student of Physics
102 upvotes by Diptarka Hait, Anurag Bishnoi, Abdul Wadood, Tanmay Mudholkar, (more)
A2A

I'm sorry, but your theory is very likely to be bogus. Intuition (on which visual proofs rely) does not work very well outside the realm of our experience; QM and GR seem highly non-intuitive to beginners. Visual proofs won't work, unless you visualize curved 3+1 spacetime.

You will have to learn physics the hard way, just like everyone else. A lot of math (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra etc) will be required for advanced physics. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics will helpful for quantum mechanics and essential for quantum field theory

The Nobel Laureate physicist Gerard t'Hooft has outlined the fields of theoretical physics and their prerequisites. How to become a GOOD Theoretical Physicist
There is some bad advice on this page.

 There is a common misconception that Einstein did not excel in mathematics. He actually got the highest grade possible in his matriculation certificate. His work involves very advanced mathematics, and he had to learn Riemannian geometry so that he could develop the general theory of relativity. You can see his original paper (in German, but the equations look the same) here: Page on harvard.edu

Do Not upload anything with your name on ViXra. That will make you a certified crackpot and loon. That site is used exclusively for bogus papers, which the authors are not able to post to ArXiv.
Umang Dattani has mentioned a quote by Feynman in the comments on another answer:

    Science is a way of trying not to fool yourself. The principle is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool.

 
Updated 20 Feb. 5,638 views.. Asked to answer by Sabuj Chattopadhyay
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Jonathan CollinsJonathan Collins
4 upvotes by Marysia Collins, Ted Astono, Timothy Egoroff, and Raghotham PS Rao
You may well have a sound theory on how energy, mass and time were formed. However It would seem unlikely that you could also have proof of such a theory with or without the use of mathematics. "Time" is particularly challenging since it is in all likelihood merely a human construct and not part of the fabric of the universe. How can you prove the existence (or coming into existence) of something that cannot be observed and may well not exist outside the confines of the human mind?  see An alternative interpretation of the consequences of Special Relativity

It is true to say that the scientific establishment currently relies upon mathematics as the primary tool for substantiation of any theory in the field of theoretical physics.  However I would argue that mathematics cannot necessarily be relied upon to unlock all the secrets of the universe (I would make the same point about the human brain in its current state of evolution).

Mathematics is a human invention that in simple terms allows us to represent the universe quantitatively in symbols. Arguably mathematics has been as important as language in elevating human kind to the top of the food chain. The society we live in today simply couldn’t function without mathematics.
 
The whole of mathematics is founded on the principle of assigning a symbol to represent the quantity of a given thing.
 
1 + 1 = 2
 
Adam has an apple and Eve has an apple, so between them they have a quantity of apples denoted by the symbol “2”. Sounds like a simple concept but it is a rare individual indeed who will create an invention of this importance!
 
So on a day to day basis mathematics allows us to run a highly successful fast moving society with a high degree of precision. Imagine trying to schedule appointments without an accurate means to measure time!
 
Most of us with a rudimentary understanding of maths will manage quite adequately with normal day to day life. In fact for most of us it doesn’t get much more complex than comparing prices on consumables or counting out money to pay the shop assistant.
 
The symbols in mathematics allow us to count any number of apples that we may come across from1 to hundreds or thousands or millions and so on. So if Adam and Eve count 2 apples that they have between them mathematics is accurately quantifying the specific physical objects in their possession.
 
However there are 2 symbols at either end of the number system that do not work so well for counting apples:
 
0 (Zero)
∞ (infinity)
 
0 (Zero). Mathematics was invented to quantify things that exist in the universe. Whilst we can understand the concept of Adam and Eve having zero apples in their possession, mathematics applied in this way is no longer quantifying things that actually exist.
 
∞ (Infinity). It is not known whether the universe is infinite. Human beings have evolved on a planet that is finite in size (approximate circumference of 24,000 miles) and as such have no experience of infinity.  Mathematically then the concept of an infinite quantity of any specific thing in the universe remains strictly theoretical.
 
In day to day life there is no need to worry about the precise meaning of these 2 symbols. However when we use mathematics to describe the extremes of our universe it is obviously important that the numbers precisely quantify the things that are being measured.  Scientific theories are frequently expressed in a mathematical formula such as Einstein’s famous equation that defines the relationship between Energy and Mass:
 
E = MC²
 
Energy (E) is equal to the mass (M) of any object multiplied by the speed of light (C) squared.
 
Einstein also postulated that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Imagine you are in a rocket ship blasting through space on full throttle. Intuitively you would expect that if you keep the throttle open you will keep accelerating... (more)
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Gary TriestmanGary Triestman, Existential Philosopher, Electrical E... (more)
7 upvotes by Scotty B Elcock, Aurélien Emmanuel, Ajay Yadav, Jerold Loyola, (more)
I would suggest you first discuss it with a knowledgeable person who has a grasp of current SR, QM and cosmology, like myself :-)
He would quickly determine whether what you have come up with violates very basic fundamentals of physics that are well known and experimentally proven.
That would be the first blush, get it out of your realm of analysis and composition, and let another person review it with a view to detecting defects in it.
If after that first run, it survives a simple analysis, then a deeper view is in order.
I am not fully agreeing with others here that you cannot achieve a lot with visualization, you can if your visualization is rigorous to the actual laws/rules of which govern the scenario. Proper intuitive visualization IS mathematical if you maintain a good assignment of attributes and responses to the visual models and the elements.
Then of course after that you need to determine whether what you have discovered is actually new, and hasn't already been discovered, and then if it is new, what does it predict that is somehow thrilling or contributory to what is already known, i.e. is it useful in any meaningful way.
 
Written 15 Mar. 822 views.
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Ian MillerIan Miller, Independent physical scientist, author
1 upvote by Greg Qur
My advice is to write down what you think, and if you are worried about precedent, get someone to witness it with a date - even a lawyer if you are really worried. Me, I would not be so worried, because if you really have a solution to one of the most difficult issues, I doubt anyone else will beat you to it.

My next piece of advice is, keep it to yourself for the time being. There is no rush. What you must do is first learn enough to understand the problems everyone else is having, not because you have to go down that path - if you have stumbled on an alternative that gets around these difficulties, great news! But you have to know what the problems are.

Let me give you an example of what I mean. I believe as stated, quantum field theory is just plain wrong. That, as you can see, will be regarded as heresy by the physics community. Nevertheless, the reason I feel it is wrong is that if it is used to calculate the expansion rate of the Universe, or the cosmological constant, calculations disagree with observation by 120 orders of magnitude. That is an error than cannot be ignored. However, I don't do anything about it, and the reason is, right now I do not know how to fix this problem. Now, the relevance to you is your theory has to avoid problems like this, and as yet you do not even know they exist. My advice is learn maths, learn physics, do the hard yards, THEN you will be in a position to determine whether you a re right, wrong, or can't tell.
 
Written Sun. 36 views.
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Gavin FaulknerGavin Faulkner
7 upvotes by Gin Graves, Niamh Gallagher, Abdul Lutfi, Alameen Oredegbe, (more)
I'll tell you what I did when I was your age and had an interest in quantum physics. I assume you have significant knowledge and understanding of basic quantum theory, Einstein's equations, and M-theory (or string theory in general).

From there, I would suggest you start by attempting to understand some simple equations. Try to understand what the Lagrangian for the Standard Model means (and first what a Lagrangian is!). Then move on to larger equations, like that for General Relativity, the Schrodinger Equations, et cetera. Make sure that you fully and completely understand them.

Then, use what you have learned to formulate an equation for your idea, if of course, your idea isn't bogus. Try to make it falsifiable and scientific, you don't want to be labelled a pseudo-scientist. Finally, summarise your proofs, equations, and if possible a Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, into a paper. Then submit the paper to a peer-reviewed journal.

tl;dr: Learn what the variables in equations mean.
 
Written 31 Mar. 774 views.
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Jakob PerssonJakob Persson, big fan of SF since age 11
7 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Aj M Al, Ajay Yadav, Marc Kroeks, (more)
1. Document your ideas in whatever way you can. Video, drawings, formulas. Back it up to the cloud so it's not just on your computer's harddrive. Timestamp them and have witnesses (friends, parents, relatives) see them. This is your evidence in case someone tries to claim your ideas as their own.

2. Find a professor or researcher of physics at a local university. This person can help you formulate your ideas and will provide access to getting published.

Good luck!
 
Updated 13 Mar. 954 views.
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Souradeep PurkayasthaSouradeep Purkayastha, Student
13 upvotes by Alameen Oredegbe, Timothy Egoroff, Julian Ingham, Sahal Kaushik, (more)
As some others have said, it is almost certainly likely that you are deluding yourself.
 
As you might know, theories in physics have been built up piece by piece, rectification upon rectification, to keep in tune with emerging experimental evidence that forced scientists to abandon pre-existing notions: at high speeds, at small scales, etc. Do you know enough mathematics to understand the domains of each of these models, their principal assumptions, what they can work with and what they can't work with, and why they have to be replaced by better theories? It seems almost certain that you do not, and until you get a solid understanding of the nuts and bolts of foundational theoretical physics, you are not really in a position to attempt esoteric unification theories.
 
If you're serious about it, I would advise you to not be in a hurry, and take your time amassing the fundamentals. Question yourself, question the things you learn, tinker with them, and solve problems. You will need to understand quite a lot of advanced mathematics before you reach, for example, General Relativity or Quantum Mechanics. Nevermind popular science depictions, they usually are very misleading. And yes, problems. You will find you'll need to do a lot of problems involving complicated mathematical steps. You'll have to model things, get results, and compare with experiment, or predict for future experimenters to find. For most people physics isn't a rosy waltz across some hi-fi theories. It needs hard work and humility, an awareness of how much you do not know.
 
As mentioned, you could look into internet sources, such as Gerard t'Hooft's pedagogical guide. It is also advised, if you plan to pursue this in future, to get mentors who can guide you in what order to study, otherwise you'll tend to move around in circles and not go very fast.
 
Written 21 Feb. 1,116 views.
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Abd Ul-Rahman LomaxAbd Ul-Rahman Lomax
3 upvotes by John Jones, Timothy Egoroff, and Kamal Sankar
Okay,  there are some great answers here, and I want to add something from a different point of view.

Wikiversity is in the Wikimedia Foundation family of wikis, and it is for "educational materials" and "learning by doing." Students (and professors) at any level may participate in creating educational resources there. Even cranks may create resources. The community, as it becomes aware of problem pages, will generally *not* delete  them, but will organize  them. They may be moved to show up as  student essays and may be criticized, and if you are interested in the sciences, you will need all the criticism you can find. It will sharpen your wits. If a page is too far out for Wikiversity mainspace, even as a subpage, it will likely be moved to your user space. So your work will not be wasted. There are some competent physicists involved with Wikiversity, but mostly they may pay little attention to your page, but you can ask them! And you can also help with other Wikiversity pages in your field of interest and, at the same time, learn about working with a community.

I am User:Abd on Wikiversity, if you go there to try it out, let me know and I can show you around and help you  to avoid getting into trouble. Not too much trouble, anyway!

https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/...

I got involved with a topic and part of that involvement was developing resources on Wikiversity and helping out with the site, and I just had my first paper published in a mainstream peer-reviewed journal, and part of what allowed that was all the research I had done for editing the wikis.
 
Written 20 Mar. 397 views.
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Pradhono Rakhmono AjiPradhono Rakhmono Aji, Physics Engineering
5 upvotes by Jerold Loyola, Abdul Lutfi, Youssef Abdellah, Timothy Egoroff, (more)
Hi friend,
Congratz with your thought!!! Really, I was there when I was in your age. The next step before publishing your idea is, unfortunately, you need to find the supporting materials. You have to write it in mathematic model and that's what we call physics theory. But don't lose the spirit, just keep searching and trying to understand the math behind it. Learnin math is fun as always!
Cheers
 
Written 15 Mar. 333 views.
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Richard J BreenRichard J Breen, BS physics U ND '631/2 Ms Ed LI U 70 ... (more)
3 upvotes by Giovani Hidalgo Ceotto, Timothy Egoroff, and Kamal Sankar
It is wonderful that you have such an interest in Physics, science and cosmology
 although you have probably missed or misunderstood the common current ideas. it IS POSSIBLE you have a new useful insight. Remember Newton was an astrologer, alchemist , theologian, and WILD Thinker before he developed his ideas of gravity and motion.   Newton first did his math with very advanced geometry BEFORE  he developed calculus .
Einstein was a clerk in a patent office before submitting his papers on "thought experiments"

Both were accepted because: they made PREDICTIONS THAT COULD BE TESTED AND MEASURED. Newton predicted the motion of the Moon and it agreed with what was observed. Einstein predicted and calculated deflection of light from a distant star as is passed the suns intense gravity. ( measured only during and eclipse)

there are more ideas than good ideas BUT you have to have the idea first.
GOOD LUCK . STAY INTERESTED. I hope you get get the Nobel prize someday.
 
Written 17 May. 1,117 views.
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AnonymousAnonymous
12 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Vishnu Stickney, Paolo Khayat, Jerold Loyola, (more)
So glad I came across a question like this on Quora. I'm going to sound crazy, but hey, crazy is the middle name of geniuses!

Congratulations for two reasons! firstly for firmly believing that you are capable of becoming a genius and come up with new theories that could change the way we see the universe...  and secondly, coming out and telling people even after knowing you will be discouraged... No matter what all people say, keep working on it, along with that of course as many people said, understand the maths and other stuff that is necessary for you to prove it BUT make sure you reveal it to the people you trust the most at the right time, do hot hurry.... Ideas can be stolen very easily...
So better don't get it published now..
Ideas are precious.... There are plenty of people who have a PhD in Physics or maths... Not all have the talent that you have! believe me, what you have is rare... so unless you are pretty damn sure about publishing it now, do not reveal it to too many people, instead meanwhile increase your knowledge of the subject and develop your theory further and further... If you are proven wrong, develop it further without simply discarding it...BUT What happens if you are right? Who knows maybe you are the next Einstein!
Even if the whole world discourages you, keep going. Remember even Einstein was mocked at, before he proved his theory of relativity
(He gave immense importance to ideas and imagination). People in general can be quite conservative when dealing with new theories from young physicists. Whether it was Newton Or Galileo, society did not accept their theories right away even after coming out with sufficient proofs. So be careful! Hope you do well :)
 
Updated 1 Mar. 918 views.
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George GonzalezGeorge Gonzalez, Four semesters of Physics! Passed all... (more)
4 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Olivier Garamfalvi, Timothy Egoroff, and Sabuj Chattopadhyay
You have done what people did for thousands of years, try to explain things using words and analogies.  A noble idea, but just hopeless.  Thousands of philosophers have written millions if not billions of words trying to describe nature, life, politics, and the like.   That works out, kind of, for the fuzzy subjects, but it does not work for describing or explaining nature!

There already are some pretty good mathematical theories that explain where things came from, so good that they can confidently predict the temperatures, pressures, and volumes of the universe down to the first microsecond.  Your theory, to be of any use, would have to be at least as good.  I'm guessing that it's not at all able to give any numerical results.  If so, it's not likely to be useful.

Don't feel bad, there have been hundreds of really smart people working in this problem for a long time.  You can't expect to outdo them all with one brain-flash.  That's just not realistic.   We all have those kinds of fantasies from time to time and that's fun, but after the coffee break we really should get back to the real world.
 
Written 12 Mar. 683 views.
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Archer FrostArcher Frost
2 upvotes by Paul Olaru and Timothy Egoroff
I'd only tell you one fact: Maths is the language of Physics. You can't publish such a theory without adequate mathematical proofs to suggest it. I used to love Physics until I learned that its 80% is mathematics. If you're set on establishing your thesis as theory, wait till you have studied advanced level Physics and Maths and then evaluate the validity of your thesis before submitting it for review anywhere. It won't be surprising if you conclude then that your theory is all wrong. That's a long and hard way, but it's the right way to do it. And probably the only.
Remember, Einstein, Newton, Stephen Hawking and all Physicists you know of - are/were all masters of Mathematics.
 
Written 25 Feb. 382 views.
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CJ Amit ChawlaCJ Amit Chawla, self taught physicist
6 upvotes by Chad Cooper, Paul Olaru, Alameen Oredegbe, Timothy Egoroff, (more)
Do not get disheartened.
It was usually the case with Einstein too.

He used to work out all the functioning in his mind first in the form of images. Only then he used to pick up a pen.

He sometimes borrowed help from other scientists like Max Planck and sometimes from his colleagues and even his students.

P.S: You really need to study physics and math before publishing to atleast know whether what you are talking about has/hasn't already been published. In the present era, the number of papers published annually are in tens of thousands.
 
Written 16 Feb. 538 views.
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Madhav Prasad SinhaMadhav Prasad Sinha, Bookworm and science enthusiast
2 upvotes by Paul Olaru and Timothy Egoroff
I won't go into :
1. the merits of your assertion about 'making a theory and having all the proofs in visual manner'
2. how does one comprehend 'special relativity, cosmology and quantum mechanics' without knowing the 'mathematical way', much less theorise about these?
3.  how does one have 'all the proofs in visual manner' for the entire cosmology or quantum mechanics or even only special relativity?
4.  and how does one can approach the question of showing formation of 'energy, mass and time'?
5. or any conjecture about your age or scientific capabilities!
I am only looking at the question of publishing something/whatever without support!
To publish, you have to write and sketch diagrams (visual manner) first.
Then you can probably post it as an answer or comment to this question itself.
And then you must upload it on viXra.org, which proudly proclaims "ViXra.org is an e-print archive set up as an alternative to the popular arXiv.org service owned by Cornell University. It has been founded by scientists who find they are unable to submit their articles to arXiv.org because of Cornell University's policy of endorsements and moderation designed to filter out e-prints that they consider inappropriate.
ViXra is an open repository for new scientific articles. It does not endorse e-prints accepted on its website, neither does it review them against criteria such as correctness or author's credentials."
-
-
Btw, this 58 year old senile hagiographer is looking forward to your post/article.
 
Written 23 Feb. 398 views.
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Ted WadeTed Wade, retired computer professinal, entrepr... (more)
I am far older than 24 but I can tell you that science is a strict task master and is slow to accept even a wonderfully presented mathmatical presentayion.
Your best bet is probably to place a copy of your concept in a well sealed package dated in a manner that cannot be altered and at the same time send a copy to your nearest university with a department relative to your subject matter.
They are not as likely to attempt to steel your idea as to dismiss it.
Even Einstein had difficulty having his theories accepted.
I've had a theory about the big  bang for decsdes that I suspect is true but being unable to prove will never be accepted by science.
My theory, called by me for decades, the repetitive big bsng, is that our big bang happens,  expands for billions of years, pauses for a like period, then retracts for a like period, back to its original mass.
After which is a repeating big bang.
Unproven, unable to be proven,  even with the finest mathematics,  can never be accepted.
I have no problem with that..
I am comfortable with my premise.
 
Written 12m ago. 1 view.
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Brian MillerBrian Miller, Got an A in Physics
1 upvote by Timothy Egoroff
All fundamental laws of Physics can be identified with differential equations.  All of them.  I'm not going to say your idea is bogus or crackpot, it may very well be the next big theoretical breakthrough, but you need to prove it by working through and showing the math.  Your theory needs to be falsifiable, that is it has to be capable of being dis proven.  If it isn't its just a belief.
First, do the math or find someone who can help you express your theory in a mathematical way, then and only then think about publishing anything.
 
Written 13 Mar. 315 views.
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Paul OlaruPaul Olaru
1 upvote by Timothy Egoroff
You should first check if it works well in the classical limit (that is, at low speed and large (our size) objects it reduces to classical mechanics, if you take one such object near lightspeed SR should be the result, gravity should be approximately general relativity around large bodies, when you go small it should fit at least the experiments in quantum mechanics and it should give new intell on the Universe. (or unifying gravity with the other forces, that would work too!)
 
Written 13 Mar. 618 views.
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__________________________________________________________________________
Rahul GargRahul Garg
6 upvotes by Timothy Egoroff, Raghotham PS Rao, Tanmay Nautiyal, Atharva Shukla, (more)
As a person who has always struggled (I am a sixteen year old and I study in The Doon School in India), I would say it doesn't really matter if you don't know a lot of maths. I have written quite a few research papers now and in the beginning I also struggled with complex mathematical equations. I have never received much professional help from anyone and have always been own my own. My main source of study has been the internet and I depend on it a lot.

It's a good start even if you can represent your theory in a visual way; whatever the other people might say. But you need to be good at making illustrations using a graphic design software (such as Photoshop or Illustrator). Somehow, I managed to learn designing a few years back and this really helps me in explaining complex phenomenon.

Now about the publishing part. I have had a tough time publishing theories on journals. They are just not willing to accept new theories from students like us (and I am saying this from personal experience). However, I suggest that you first get your idea or your draft theory reviewed by a teacher or a professor who you might know. In case you don't know anyone eligible to review it, then you can't really do much about it. I would suggest a site like Academia.edu - Share research where you can upload your own research or viXra.org open e-Print archive which is somewhat a non-reputed clone of arXiv.org e-Print archive .

I hope this helps.

P.S. In case you need any help with illustrations or want to know how to go about penning down your theory, feel free to contact me. I will be willing to help. I could also help with quantum mechanics and relativity as they are one of my favorite topics.

8-7-15 Research this offer See above line like the line below for possible contact.(JLD) 

__________________________________________________________________________
 
Written 19 Feb. 562 views.
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Abdul LutfiAbdul Lutfi
1 upvote by Timothy Egoroff
Can I know what and how it is and works respectively? Maybe I can help. I'm 16. I have my own experience trying to publish some articles just to know how it works. I am too working on my own theory. So please I hope you will not see me as a predator. If you are willing to seek help from me, please draw and write them down on paper, scan it and send it to my mail as attachment. You can draw on it. Be free. No need to write it proper. Whatever things coming to you, just let it flow and draw, write and anything that you believe makes the link. I will not mind if it's messy.
abdul.lutfi146@gmail.com
 
By the way, you can look at my article here:
Incompressible Fluids Flowing Through Differential Pipes Diverge?
A POINT WHERE GRAVITY IS NEUTRAL
I hope we can collaborate. Hope you reply through mail.
 
Written 17 Mar. 135 views.
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Nikhil MelgiriNikhil Melgiri
6 upvotes by Tim Hopkins, Maarten van den Driest, Nick Valdez, Mathew Clutter, (more)
if you are friends with a physicist, present your idea to him, and he will help you with the mathematics. I am 15 years old, so i just post my questions and theories online so people comment and edit upon it. We have a lot in common bro.
 
Written 27 May. 545 views.
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Harish RamanHarish Raman
4 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Aurélien Emmanuel, Virendra Yadav, and Ankit Saraf
How did you calculate anything in your theory without math? Imagining stuff does not make it a viable theory.

If you're really 14 and haven't heard of 'scientific method', Google it. If you make a theory, you must provide a way to verify it in an unambiguous way. Math is the commonly accepted language of showing the results. The math either works or it doesn't. There is no in between. Visualizations don't count.
 
Updated 21 Feb. 796 views.
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Janet SellersJanet Sellers, Artist and Writer
1 upvote by Timothy Egoroff
Thank you, Arpan, for your wise and kindly answer. I learned a lot just now on many levels.
 
Written 16 Mar. 132 views.
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Adit AkarshAdit Akarsh, Physics isn't complete. But I know cl... (more)
3 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Timothy Egoroff, and Raghotham PS Rao
Use help. Ask a specialist on Quora. See if you can contact professors online.
- 12 year old.
 
Written 16 Feb. 498 views.. Asked to answer by Raghotham PS Rao
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Abhinav ChoudharyAbhinav Choudhary, I am not a virgin, Life fucked me!
2 upvotes by Paul Olaru and Raghotham PS Rao
I am sorry to say this but visual proof does no good of it does not satisfy mathematical equations.
I hope your theory is more relevant than just a visual thought.
 
Written 16 Feb. 684 views.
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Bhuvan SridharanBhuvan Sridharan, The BackYard SCIENTIST!
12 upvotes by Paul Olaru, Tony Vincent, Ege Özmeral, Lucas Stresser, (more)

    Study maths , physics hard.
    Grow older.
    Work hard.
    Become physicist and love physics.
    If your theory still holds true.
    Rule the world with your theory.

    
Sincerely,
- a fourteen year old.
 
Written 16 Feb. 747 views.
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Timothy EgoroffTimothy Egoroff, ?
Time is the phisicall allowability of 3 dimensional movement\existance. This is known as the time domain or vacuum energy. Read (coming soon) for more information in the topic.
 
Written 26 Jun. 10 views.
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Rahul NayakRahul Nayak
1 upvote by Kamal Sankar
Its good but without formulating formula on your works your works will be useless.learn good maths.you will be having great future.
 
Written 14 Mar. 133 views.

7-7-15 Copied from today's Email:

EarthSky // Science Wire, Space Release Date: Jul 06, 2015

Hidden supermassive black holes revealed

Scientists have detected 5 supermassive black holes previously clouded from view. The research suggests there are millions more hidden black holes out there.

Scale_Factor_betweenJ_String-Bohr_radius.xls 
An artist’s illustration of a supermassive black hole, actively feasting on its surroundings. The central black hole is hidden from direct view by a thick layer of encircling gas and dust. Image credit: NASA/ESA.

An artist’s illustration of a supermassive black hole, actively feasting on its surroundings. The central black hole is hidden from direct view by a thick layer of encircling gas and dust. Image credit: NASA/ESA.

Astronomers have found evidence for a large population of hidden supermassive black holes in the universe.

Using NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite observatory, the team of international scientists detected the high-energy x-rays from five supermassive black holes previously clouded from direct view by dust and gas.

The research supports the theory that potentially millions more supermassive black holes exist in the universe, but are hidden from view.

The findings were presented today (July 6) at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting, at Venue Cymru, in Llandudno, Wales.

A Hubble Space Telescope colour image of one of the nine galaxies targeted by NuSTAR. The high energy X-rays detected by NuSTAR revealed the presence of an extremely active supermassive black hole at the galaxy centre, deeply buried under a blanket of gas and dust. Image credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA, ESA.

A Hubble Space Telescope color image of one of the nine galaxies targeted by NuSTAR. The high energy X-rays detected by NuSTAR revealed the presence of an extremely active supermassive black hole at the galaxy center, deeply buried under a blanket of gas and dust. Image credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA, ESA.

The scientists pointed NuSTAR at nine candidate hidden supermassive black holes that were thought to be extremely active at the center of galaxies, but where the full extent of this activity was potentially obscured from view.

High-energy x-rays found for five of the black holes confirmed that they had been hidden by dust and gas. The five were much brighter and more active than previously thought as they rapidly feasted on surrounding material and emitted large amounts of radiation.

Such observations were not possible before NuSTAR, which launched in 2012 and is able to detect much higher energy x-rays than previous satellite observatories.

Lead author George Lansbury is a postgraduate student in the Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, at Durham University. Lansbury said:

For a long time we have known about supermassive black holes that are not obscured by dust and gas, but we suspected that many more were hidden from our view.

Thanks to NuSTAR for the first time we have been able to clearly see these hidden monsters that are predicted to be there, but have previously been elusive because of their ‘buried’ state.

Although we have only detected five of these hidden supermassive black holes, when we extrapolate our results across the whole Universe then the predicted numbers are huge and in agreement with what we would expect to see.

Bottom line: An international team of astronomers Using NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite observatory, have detected the high-energy x-rays from five supermassive black holes previously clouded from direct view by dust and gas. The research supports the theory that potentially millions more supermassive black holes exist in the universe, but are hidden from view.

Read more from the Royal Astronomical Society

7-8-15 Copied from reference to my subscription July 2015 Scientific American: 

Observations 

Opinion, arguments & analyses from the editors of Scientific American

 

What if Dark Matter Is Stranger Than We Thought? [Video]

| 

 




Dave Young/Flickr

One of the biggest mysteries in science today is what makes up dark matter—the plentiful, invisible material that swarms throughout the universe, exerting its gravitational lure on regular matter. Physicists have traditionally surmised that dark matter is a single type of particle that rarely interacts with the rest of the particles in nature, such as the normal electrons and quarks that make up the atoms in our bodies. But that picture is not the only option.

Lately another theory, sometimes called complex dark matter, has been gaining prominence. This scenario posits not just one category of particle composing dark matter but many—and it includes the possibility that some of these particles could combine to form composites akin to dark atoms. Complex dark matter could act and group in different ways than the simple dark matter particle is thought to do. It could, for example, form structures that mirror and overlap with the disks of spiral arms in galaxies.

Physicists Bogdan Dobrescu and Don Lincoln, both of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, describe the possibilities of complex dark matter in the latest issue of Scientific American. Read their article here. Lincoln also details the idea in a recent video, below:

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

Turbocad_Dwg_2_save_as_pdf.pdf My J_Aether-Paradigm Theory is complex , J_Waves along J_Strings are J_Dark Matter and J_Dark Energy that are the creation of J_Mass J_Gravity and J_Aether.

7-8-15 I pasted Quora Rahul Garg conservation with me. He is interested in simplifying Physics and minimising Math usage. I WILL TRY TO PUBLISH MY CONCEPTS WITH HIS HELP.

 

7-11-15 I uploaded the above Turbocad Dwg 2 file saved as pdf yesterday. I tryed to email it to Rahul Garg like I did by pasting in to his email address copied from Turbocad like I did Dwg 1 which I think he got. No way would it email even this pdf file. He dad asked me to use his email befor I sent him Dwg 1. I will reply to the next email I get from him.

7-14-15 TurboCad Dwg 3 pasted i wordpad:

TurboCad_Dwg_3_J_String_with_J_Waves_h_length.docx

Continue to excel SS on equal area in J_String with J_Waves:

J_String_with_137_J_Waves__scaled_up_to_mm.xlsx

7-16-15 Copied from Physics Digest My Email:

Perpetual motion is entirely possible and does not contradict any laws of Physics. What is not possible is a machine that extracts energy from such motion.

The motion of electrons about the nucleus did present a serious problem for classical mechanics. The problem was that a negative point-like particle (the electron) orbiting a positive nucleus should, unlike the case of a planet orbiting a star, act like an electric current and radiate energy. This radiation would indeed cause the electron's orbit to decay and nothing would stop it colliding with the nucleus.

It required the apparatus of Quantum Theory to resolve this problem. The electron becomes a probabilistic cloud rather than a point-particle. It exists in certain quantum levels which have probabilistic distributions rather than orbits and no two electrons can have the same quantum state (the Pauli Exclusion Principle).

As you can see your intuition of an electron "moving" around the nucleus no longer applies. Indeed anyone's intuition no longer really applies. You simply have to grind out the mathematics of the Schrödinger Equationand the like: something which has turned out to be the most accurate scientific theory we have ever developed!
 

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7-17-15 The Spread Sheet excel roughly indicates d1 of J_Spiral J_Rod diameter is approx 95 mm when 137 J_Waves are 1 Planck length h 16.162 x 10^-36 m = 16.162 x 10^-33 mm.  lp=Square-Route(hG/c^3)=1.616199(97) x 10^-35 m. The Turbocad rough drawing of J_String inner J_Rod dia 95 mm the scale needs to be corrected a Planck length is much smaller than (Bohrs length* Pi) circumference. I will redo dimensions in the above 3 drawings links.

7-20-15 Scale Factor Needed:

 Scale_Factor_betweenJ_String-Bohr_radius.xls  

7-22-15 The Scale Factor for Rough Sketch Dwg 2 & Dwg 2 above is approximate 1.50124 E+23 to scale up from Planck value to mm values of rough sketches.

7-30-15 The keyboard on my mac pro isn't working right, shift key  doesn't work, so to get uppercase i have to use caps lock key and i can't use uppercase symbols. To get the at symbol i have to find it somewhere in saved text and copy it.

The above entries in july are Pryor art and my getting info on what is needed to publish on another website or publisher.

7-31-15 The Planck length J_WaveLength x 137 the inverse of fine structure for J_Electron and J_Photon at rest J_Energy in a J_Hydrogen J_Atom.

8-8-15 Entered using Windows 10 software I downloaded last night and this morning

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Ari Royce
Ari RoycePhysics, Martial Arts, AI, Molecular Biology, Dao, Business
 
 

 + r e- Derivation of Bohr’s Equations for the One-electron Atom Bohr set about to devise a model that would explain the observed line spectra of oneelectron atoms, such as H, He+ , Li2+. The model Bohr used was based on Rutherford’s conclusion from his gold foil experiments that the negative electrons in an atom are a great distance away from the positive charge in the nucleus. Bohr began with a classical mechanical approach, which assumes that the electron in a one-electron atom is moving in a circular orbit with a radius, r, from the nucleus. The movement of an electron in its orbit would create a centrifugal force, which gives it a tendency to fly away from the nucleus. This force is given by Fcentrifugal = -mv2 /r where m is the mass of the electron, and v is its velocity. In order to have a stable atom, it was assumed that this centrifugal force was exactly matched by an opposing centripetal force, drawing the electron inward through the coulombic attraction between the electron’s negative charge and the positive charge in the nucleus. This coulombic force of attraction is given by Fcoulombic = -Ze2 /r 2 Equating these two forces, we have (1) mv 2 r ' Ze 2 r 2 We can rearrange equation (1), solving for r, to obtain the following expression: (2) r ' mv 2 r 2 Ze 2 2 If we multiply the right side of equation (2) by m/m, this becomes (3) r ' m 2 v 2 r 2 mZe 2 ' (mvr) 2 mZe 2 Written in this way, the numerator is the electron’s angular momentum squared, (mvr) 2 . At this point, Bohr made an assumption that departs radically from concepts of classical mechanics. Bohr’s assumption, called the quantum hypothesis, asserts that the angular momentum, mvr, can only take on certain values, which are whole-number multiples of h/2π; i.e., mvr = nh/2π n = 1, 2, 3, ... where h is Planck’s constant. Substituting nh/2π for mvr in equation (3) we obtain the Bohr expression for the radius: (4) r ' n 2 h 2 4π2 mZe 2 For the hydrogen atom (Z = 1), the smallest radius, given the symbol ao, is obtained from equation (4) when n = 1: ao ' (5) h 2 4π2 me 2 ' 0.529 D This is called the Bohr radius. Using the definition of ao in equation (5), we can rewrite equation (4) to obtain a more compact form of the radius equation for any one-electron atom: r ' (6) n 2 ao Z Since ao is a constant, equation (6) predicts that the radius increases in direct proportion to the square of the quantum number, n2 , and decreases in inverse proportion to the atomic number, Z. Thus, the sizes of the orbits in hydrogen are predicted to be ao, 4ao, 9ao, 16ao, 25ao, etc. Furthermore, the orbits in He+ (Z = 2) for any value of n are predicted to be half as large as the comparable orbits in H. Although the radius equation is an interesting result, the more important equation concerned the energy of the electron, because this correctly predicted the line spectra of oneelectron atoms. The derivation of the energy equation starts with the assumption that the electron in its orbit has both kinetic and potential energy, E = K + U. The kinetic energy, which arises from electron motion, is K = ½mv2 . The potential energy, which arises from the coulombic attraction between the negative charge of the electron and the positive charge in the nucleus, is given by U = –Ze2 /r. Thus, 3 E ' ½mv (7) 2 & Ze 2 r We have seen that in Bohr’s model the coulombic force is assumed to be equal and opposite to the centrifugal force [equation (1)]. We can rearrange equation (1) to obtain an expression for mv2 : mv (8) 2 ' Ze 2 r Substituting this into the first term in equation (7) we obtain E ' (9) 1 2 Ze 2 r & Ze 2 r ' & 1 2 Ze 2 r ' & Ze 2 2r The negative sign in equation (9) indicates a favorable energy of attraction, which must be overcome to remove the electron to an infinite distance from the nucleus. We can eliminate r from equation (9) by substituting equation (4): E ' (10) &2π2 mZ 2 e 4 n 2 h 2 If we gather all the constants to define a single constant, B, equation (10) can be written most simply as E ' & (11) BZ 2 n 2 As equation (11) shows, the energy becomes more favorable (negative) in direct proportion to the square of the nuclear charge, and less favorable (less negative) in inverse proportion to the square of the quantum number. For the one-electron atom (H, He+ , Li2+, etc.), the lowest energy occurs when n = 1. This energy state is called the ground state. If the atom receives sufficient energy, as in a gas discharge tube, its electron may jump to a higher orbit (n > 1) with corresponding higher energy. This represents an excited state. The only way the atom can assume a lower-energy state is through emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The energy of this radiation is equal to the energy difference between the high state and the lower state: Elight = *Efinal - Einitial* = *Elow - Ehigh* In terms of the Bohr energy equation [equation (11)], the energy of the emitted light should be (12) Elight ' * &BZ 2 n 2 low & &BZ 2 n 2 high * ' BZ 2 1 n 2 low & 1 n 2 high 4 We assume that nhigh is always at least one integer value greater than nlow; i.e. nhigh > nlow. The lower state, nlow, may be either the ground state (n = 1) or any other excited state with a lower value of n than the original state, nhigh. Since the energy of electromagnetic radiation is conventionally not given a sense of sign, equation (12) has been formulated here in terms of absolute value. From Planck we know that E = hν, so if we divide through equation (12) by h we can write an expression for the frequencies of the emitted light: (13) ν ' BZ 2 h 1 n 2 low & 1 n 2 high For hydrogen (Z = 1), the constants outside the brace equal the Rydberg constant in units of hertz (Hz = s-1) ; i.e., BZ2 /h = U. This general equation predicts the frequencies of the Balmer series, if the low state is nlow = 2: (14) ν ' BZ 2 h 1 n 2 low & 1 n 2 high ' U 1 4 & 1 n 2 n ' 3, 4, 5, ... Equation (14) is equivalent to the equation Balmer deduced empirically. It represents the frequencies for the series of transitions from various excited states to the same lower state for which nlow = 2. Substituting other values of nlow in equation (13) gives frequencies that predict other series of line spectra for hydrogen, which had not been observed at the time Balmer did his experiments. Balmer’s elucidation of the series for which nlow = 2 was simply a result that visible light was the most readily observed kind of electromagnetic radiation with the spectroscopes available in the late nineteenth century. Other series predicted by equation (13) fall either in the ultraviolet or infrared regions, which are more difficult to observe experimentally. With better instrumentation and the impetus of the Bohr equation, the following line-spectra were subsequently discovered, in addition to the Balmer series: 5 nlow Region Series Name 1 ultraviolet Lyman 2 visible Balmer 3 infrared Paschen 4 infrared Brackett 5 infrared Pfund The ability to predict the frequencies of these series gave credibility to the Bohr model. However, all attempts to extend this approach to multi-electron atoms failed. More significantly, its “particle-only” view of the atom and its exact predictions for the location and momentum of the electron were contrary to the subsequent understandings of wave-particle duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. By the 1930's, most physicists (including Bohr) had abandoned this model in favor of the wave mechanical approach formulated by Irwin Schrödinger.

8-9-15 See page Equations also for these Bohr Model and Bohr Equations where the difference is also in J_Paradigm J_Aether  Integral part of J_Electron.

8-10-15  Yesterdays above Bohr Theory Equations & Model and the today was copied from internet Wikipedia and below from Quora in My email:

Does string theory make any predictions that can be tested empirically?

Is string theory falsifiable? Does it have to be falsifiable? If it's not falsifiable, can it be considered a scientific theory?
 
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How can the Higgs boson contain 130 times the mass of the proton but still be a constituent part of a proton?

 

 

 

Barak Shoshany, Graduate Student at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

6.4k Views • Barak is a Most Viewed Writer in Physics with 38 endorsements.

 

A proton consists of 3 quarks. The Higgs boson is not a constituent part of the proton; in fact, it's not a constituent part of anything. The Higgs boson is merely an excited state of the Higgs field. The Higgs field gives masses (indirectly) to all massive particles that we know of, including the quarks inside the proton, in a process called the Higgs mechanism. However, almost all of the mass of the proton is obtained through means unrelated to the Higgs mechanism.

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my answer to What is the Higgs Mechanism? for more information about the Higgs mechanism and how the proton gets its mass.

 

Written 30 Dec 2014View Upvotes • Asked to answer by Craig Heile

 

 

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How does it give mass to particles?
 
 
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Barak Shoshany
Barak Shoshany, Graduate Student at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
40.3k ViewsUpvoted by Inna Vishik, Postdoctoral fellow @ MIT physics departmentShankar Iyer, Ph.D. in Condensed Matter Theory from CaltechAbhijeet Borkar, PhD student in Physics (Astrophysics)
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I'll try my best to explain the Higgs mechanism without any math. It goes very roughly like this:

1. All elementary particles are merely excited states (or quanta) of some field. This includes the Higgs boson, which is the quanta of the Higgs field, the photon, which is the quanta of the electromagnetic field, the electron, which is the quanta of the electron field, and so on. All fields exist at all points in time and space.

2. Fields may couple to other fields, and in this case the fields are said to be interacting with one another.

3. Some fields couple to the Higgs field. After a process called spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Higgs field is separated into two parts. The first part remains a dynamic field, and its quanta are the Higgs bosons. The second part is a constant (called the vacuum expectation value), and the equations that describe the coupling of the Higgs field to other fields become equations that describe the other fields coupling (quadratically) to themselves, which in quantum field theory is interpreted as giving mass to a field. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is therefore proportional to the mass of each field. (See further explanation below.)

4. The equations that are interpreted as giving mass to certain fields do not exist before the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the Higgs field occurs. Actually, they cannot exist, due to symmetry considerations (and this is why it's called "symmetry breaking"!). So this is how the Higgs field gives masses to the elementary particles: any field that couples (or interacts) with the Higgs field acquires a mass term that would otherwise would not have existed.

5. Going back to item (1), since all elementary particles are quanta of their corresponding fields, the particles that are the quanta of fields that couple to the Higgs field acquire mass due to spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is the essence of the Higgs mechanism. This includes all known particles (or fields) except the photon, the gluon, and (possibly) the 3 generations of neutrinos.

EDIT: As requested in the comments, I will attempt to explain a few things.

Regarding item (3) above, what exactly is the vacuum expectation value?

(Note: I took the illustrations from a post on the blog Quantum Diaries, which you are encouraged to read.)

The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is just the value that we would "expect" it to have when it is in its vacuum state, which is the state of lowest energy. It turns out that it is a general law of nature that physical systems always "want" to be in the state of lowest possible energy. The allowed values for the energy are determined by the system's potential energy function. In the case of the Higgs field, the potential function looks (more or less) like this:


This is called the "mexican hat" potential for obvious reasons. It's a 3-dimensional graph. The two horizontal axes are the values that the field can take. The vertical axis, labeled V(ϕ), is the value of the potential energy that corresponds to each specific value of the field ϕ. It's kind of like a geographic terrain, where the values of the field are the longitude and latitude, and the value of the potential is the height.

So we have a large valley, with a small hill at the center, on which the Higgs field is currently "sitting" in the image. However, the Higgs looks around and notices that there are lower energy states all around him, at the bottom of the valley. It "wants" to roll down the hill into a state of lower energy.

Notice that when it's at the top of the hill, the system is completely symmetric; you can rotate the potential around the vertical axis as much as you want, and it'll still look exactly the same. But after the Higgs rolls down into a particular spot, the potential is no longer symmetric. We call this process spontaneous symmetry breaking, because the Higgs "broke" the symmetry spontaneously when it chose a specific point on the circle to roll down into. Here is an illustration of what happens:


The Higgs chose a particular point to roll down into, on the right of the hill, and if we now rotate the potential function in the direction of the blue arrow, it will no longer be at the same point. So the symmetry was broken.

When the Higgs rolled down into a point of lower energy ("height"), we say that it acquired a vacuum expectation value (VEV). Note that the VEV is the value of the field, not of the energy. Previously, when it was at the top of the hill, the field's VEV was zero; this can be easily seen from the fact that it was at the origin (center) of the horizontal plane, where the field equals zero. Now the field has a non-zero value, the VEV, but it has lower energy than it had before.

Ok, those are nice pictures and all, but how does this process actually give mass to particles? I'm afraid for that you'll have to endure a little bit of math, but I promise it'll be really simple.

As I explained in point (3) above, some other fields couple to the Higgs field. This means that, in the equations that describe all the fields, there are some interaction terms that look (very roughly) like this:

gψ¯¯¯ψϕ

Here's what each symbol means:
  • ϕ is the Higgs field.
  • ψ and ψ¯¯¯ are the fields of some particle and its antiparticle. For example, an electron and a positron.
  • g is just a number, called the coupling constant, which determines how strong the interaction is between the three fields (electron, positron and Higgs).
Now, as described above, the Higgs field obtains a VEV. This is just some number. Let's call that number v. So we can separate ϕ into v, which is just a number, and H, which is a new field:

ϕ=v+H

Let's put this into the expression above and see what we get:

gψ¯¯¯ψϕ=gψ¯¯¯ψv+gψ¯¯¯ψH

The expression on the right is still an interaction term, since it still has three fields. We just replaced ϕ with another field, H. This new field, and not ϕ, is the Higgs boson. So we got a term that describes how the electron and positron interact with the Higgs boson. But that's not relevant right now.

The expression on the left is where the mass comes from. First, let's combine v and g together, since they are both just numbers. And let's call that combination m. So we have m=gv, and the expression becomes:
mψ¯¯¯ψ
This is an "interaction term" between a particle and its antiparticle, and there is no third field. Such an interaction is called (drumroll...) a mass term! So, according to quantum field theory, this term says that the electron and positron both have mass m. They didn't have it before; there was no mass term before. But with the help of the Higgs field's VEV, we've managed to create a mass term "out of nothing". This is how the Higgs field gives mass to particles.

What about particles, like protons, that do not acquire mass through the Higgs mechanism?

The Higgs mechanism can only give mass to elementary particles. The number of elementary particles is actually quite small. Here is a table of all the elementary particles and their properties:


There are 17 particles in this table, including the Higgs boson itself. Out of them, only 12 particles get masses from the Higgs mechanism. These are the 6 quarks u, d, c, s, t, b, the 3 leptons e, μ, τ, the 2 gauge bosons Z, W, and the Higgs boson itself, H. (It's possible that the neutrinos also get their masses from the Higgs mechanism, but we're not sure yet.)

However, there are many other particles that are not elementary; they are called composite particles. These particles are made from elementary particles and/or from other composite particles. For example, the proton is made from two u quarks and one d quark:


However, the proton's mass is around 940 MeV, which, as you can see from the table above, is a lot more than the sum of the masses of two u quarks and one d quark, which is around 9.4 MeV - only 1% of the proton's total mass! How is this possible? Well, we all know that E=mc2; energy is equivalent to mass, and vice versa. So the rest of the proton's mass must come from the energy stored within it.

Indeed, there are two sources of energy inside the proton. The quarks always move around inside, so they have kinetic energy. And the quarks also interact with each other (as illustrated by the squiggly lines connecting them); this interaction is what binds the quarks together, and it also has energy. So both the kinetic energy and the binding energy of the quarkscontribute to the overall mass of the proton. The same goes for all other composite particles.
 

Answer Author

Barak ShoshanyBarak Shoshany 
Graduate Student at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

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11-9-15 ToE in J_Paradigm is J_ToE (meaning J_Theory of Everything which I am Developing in this Disclosure). My J_Wave.s on the outside surface of J_String which composes the Particles of Particle Physics including the prior art above.

 11-11-15 I will now look for Elnstine Youtoube and TV "spacetimeandspeed":

2-2-16  Continued from END on page new instruments last used  got this  Ellipsis 10 Tablet  Scott C. He didn't do the ready to go setup.

2-3-16 space time:

https://youtu.be/MO_Q_f1WgQI

The above URL should be copied and pasted in to your browser to get modern physics explanations of space-time one with Einstein see 11-11-15 above.

2-5-16  Continue 11-9-16 But the ELECTRON IS NOT A PARTICLE instead a J_String J_Aether J_Field of 137 J_Waves. The J_Photon-J_Radiated from the crest of J_Waves with a J_Frequency derived from the  137 J_Waves of J_Electron of Bohr Radius J_Hydrogen blue light.