ABOUT   5-20-16 All sources by conventional methods will be cited when I rewrite this Blog  before releasing in Book Form.

Arrows_of_J_Time.jpg

A Web Log by Jack Doan

  Arrows of time, moving though the fabric of the universe.

 


10-22-15 Update : For the larger parts of the following collection of Prior Art pertaining to my disclosure was coped unchanged from its source.

 

 

  I  Try to understand the following quotes: Falsification of Principles of Relativity and Equivalence.

These tests have been thought to be proofs of Einstein’s special and general theories of relativity, for the formulas of special and general relativity were once again proven correct. But somehow a couple of important points have been missed. These experiments show that it is possible (though difficult and expensive) to measure absolute velocity in space through atomic clock experiments. (The westward flying clocks were more nearly at rest than the earth because of the earth’s daily rotation. ) Thus the principle of relativity–the supposition that the universe may be so constituted that it is impossible by any kind of experiment whatever to detect absolute motion through space–is false! The principle is almost true. Almost no phenomena will measure absolute motion in space. Inertia will not show absolute motion. Therefore there is the covariance of physical laws. But relativity is not absolute. Space is absolute. Absolute motion can be detected with atomic clock experiments.

With the falsification of the principle of relativity, Einstein’s etherless theory of special relativity is undermined. Interestingly enough, the Hafele-Keating experiment, correctly interpreted, also falsifies the principle of equivalence, the founda tion of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The principle of equivalence is that it is impossible by any means to detect the difference between gravity and a corresponding acceleration. But with the Hafele-Keating experiment, we see from experiment al data, not just theory, that atomic clocks go at constant rates at constant altitudes in a gravitational field, but go at constant rates at constant velocities, not constant accelerations. With sufficient experiments with atomic clocks it is possible to differentiate between accelerations and gravitational fields. (40) Thus Einstein’s whole Theory of General Relativity is based on a faulty foundation. Again the principle of equivalence is nearly true. Accelerometers cannot differentiate between gravity and inertia. But atomic clocks can. Therefore the principle of equivalence is partial, not absolute.

Some have argued that the motions of the jets around the earth and of the earth itself were accelerated motions, not covered by special relativity. But the special relativistic formulas did harmonize well with the measured results, and besides there is no acceleration term in time dilation–only velocity terms and gravity terms. Gravity is thus more like a gradient of velocities in space than like an acceleration.

The results of the Hafele-Keating experiment should have been more of a scientific scandal than the Michelson-Morley experiment. But scientists have been slow to discern the true character of those results.

I. Ether Quasi-Relativity

How could Einstein’s theories of relativity provide the correct formulas for the Hafele-Keating experiment, when his principle of relativity and principle of equivalence are false? Actually, while Einstein made a big point out of the principle of relativity (it was his first postulate) and ascribed his theory to it, his Special Theory of Relativity was not based on the principle of relativity, per se, but on the assumption that there is a covariance of physical laws (which is true) and that the speed of light is constant to all observers (which is also a true assumption and quite separate from the principle of relativity).

The Hafele-Keating experiment shows that there is an absolute space after all. Is there also an ether? Several recent experimental and theoretical results can best be accounted for by an ether system. A hard vacuum seems to have immense positive pressure. Particles like protons are seen to be bubbles in the vacuum. In the bag model of quarks it takes energy to push aside ordinary space–about 55 million ev/cubic fermi. (41) Another interesting recent concept is the “decay of the vacuum”–the electrical ionization of the vacuum in the presence of a strong localized electric charge–such as the nucleus of a hypothetical atom with Z = 173 or more. (42)

The easiest way to account for such phenomena would be to theorize an actual fluid of near-zero rest mass particles in the vacuum that can be electrically polarized and ionized,–a luminiferous ether so to speak. Is there an ether after all?

Recently there has developed renewed interest in an ether, with new evidence of the existence of an ether consisting of a sea of neutrinos and gravitons. Estimates have been made of the density of this ether. (43)

Perhaps there is an absolute space and an ether after all. But what about relativity? Einstein’s formulas for special and general relativity proved correct in the Hafele-Keating experiment as well as in many other experiments. Certainly we cannot go back to classical mechanics even with an ether. What we need is not an absolute reference frame with an ether merely, or relativity without an ether, but relativity up to a point (quasi-relativity) in an ether. We may see a grand ether-relativity duality in nature similar to and parallel to the particle-wave duality.

It was once popular to believe in an absolute space defined by an ether. But this became unpopular after the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Careful interferometry failed to detect an expected ether drift across the surface of the planet. Einstein accounted for the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment by assuming the speed of light is constant to all observers and deriving his Special Theory of Relativity. If there is covariance of physical laws and the constancy of c, the reason will be a null result to every Michelson-Morley type of experiment with or without an ether simply because the speed of light is constant to all observers. Einstein did not say that an ether was incompatible with relativity. He said, “the introductio n of a ‘luminiferous ether’ will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an ‘absolute stationary space’ provided with special properties, nor assign a velocity vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place. (44) His calculations of special relativity may not have required an absolute space, but modern experiment has. Also, general relativity introduces a preferred coordinate system if special relativity does not. If Einstein had studied the principle of equivalence of gravity and inertia before the principle of relativity, he might have had a different view of the need for an absolute space.

There is another convincing evidence that there is an ether and an absolute space. For the last 30 years of his life, Albert Einstein attempted to derive a unified field theory in which gravity is united to the electric force. He failed in his attempt. Many others have subsequently tried and failed to do this feat. Scientists have also likened the difficulty of uniting relativity and particle physics to attempts to unite fire and ice. This book will show that in both problems the difficulty is with Einstein’s etherless theory of relativity. With quasi-relativity in an ether the solutions to the above two problems are possible and can be understood by undergraduate physics students in college if not by those in high school.

Problem Set 2

Did Maxwell interpret his laws in an ether or without an ether?” See C, Wave-Ether Theory above bottom line his theory of “aether straines.”"

# 12 See also JLDAnoligies #1 through #27 of Science and Above for Jack L. Doan’s aEther and now the J_Wvs & J_Ether.

“How many forces can you now explain with an electrical ether? [If you finish this volume you will be able to explain them all with an electrical ether.]“

# 13 All of these unified field forces are explained by J_Wvs & J_Ethr which is being compared to this volume of this text Formulating the Universe from the Internet.

“Did the Michelson-Morley experiment prove there is no ether?” # 14 No because J_Ethr is part of and dominated localy by the system used in their experiment,

“What did the Michelson-Morley experiment prove?”

#15 That the speed of light is the same in all directions through J_Ether so it in a classical explanation the J_Ether appears to be dragged along with their experiment.

“Does Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity actually require the assumption of the absolute principle of relativity? On what two postulates is it actually based?”

# 16 (C:\\Documents and Settings\\Owner\\My Documents\\CONSIS_Co-Varance of Physical Laws.pdf”) & The speed of light is the same in all directions see the question befor this last one.

“Can any experiment be devised to show absolute motion through space?”

# 17 Yes sub solar system size with current computers & Space technology.

“What devices would be required?”

# 18 Using a much larger Michelson-Morley experiment with point #1 & #2 on the earth, #3 on one L5 satellite and #4 on another L5 satellite and #5 on the moon see Fig. 2-1 above for J_Waves & J_Ether light propagation between systems.

“Can any experiment be devised to show the difference between gravity and constant acceleration?”

# 19 Yes sub solar system size like above.

“What devices would be required?”

# 20 The same as above with a J_Waves detector interferometer new and unique invention that detects the macro reflections of the spiraling spherical grid of J_Waves & J_Ether.

“What can account for immense pressure in a vacuum?”

# 21 The momentum of the tours J_Waves and the equal and opposite of the momentum of the J_Ether string core at the center of the J_Waves.spiraling four dimensionally out from the nuclei of all atoms in J_Universe.

“What could account for the ability of the vacuum to ionize?”

# 22 J_Waves can ionize in a vacuum similar to the way in which 137 of them form an electron in the inner electron shell of an atom.

 ”The ages-long tug-of-war between particle and wave models of light was in this century resolved by the recognition of a profound particle-wave duality. In view of that fact, how would you resolve the paradox between the need for an absolute reference frame with an ether and the need for relativity (up to now without an ether)?”

# 23 Relativity is the Bases of J_Waves & J_Ether E = m c^2 .

The mass increase observation of one system considered as being stationary relative to the mass of another that are equal when the two systems are stationary relative to each other.At this point the disclosure of what mass is shall be described. The mass of an electron is in each of the J_Electron waves, the accumulative mass of the 137 J_ElectronPhotonWaves in the electron’s orbit of the inner electron shell of an atom. The mass of each of the J_ElectornPhotonWaves that are tordial shaped are also J_GrvtyPhtnWvs that create the J_Ethr center of these J_Waves that spiral outward toward to their limit in the J_Universe. The mass in protons and neutrons that are also the accumulative J_Waves mass within the atom nucleus so that that the J_Waves that the tiny strings of “The String Theory” have mass a momentum as result of J_WaveTrdlWvFrm that in equal and opposite reaction first in the closed tiny strings of these wave forms that have a loop of J_Ether that moves through their core in equal and opposite direction in the loop. The tiny open string that aligns itself to longer cosmological strings that form the quark twisters. in all cases the mass of the entities are the tours J_Waves action causing an equal and opposite reaction in their J_Ether core.The mass of all these entities of one inertial system moves at a speed aspecialy approching the speed of light relative to the mass of the enities of another inertial system. This is because the J_Wvs & J_Ethr momentum of the two inertial systems moving relative to each other have an increas in their overlaping inertial instant reaction at a distance to this relative motion of these two inertial systems. The J_Energy increase as thes 2 inertial systems and their associated mass therefor is increased “E = M c^2″ gives the total J_Energy that would be created If all the mass in one of the inertial systems was changed into J_Energy. Well except in an atomic explosion this wouldn’t happen. The energy in the relative motion of the 2 inertial systems and the J_Energy created and therefor the 2 systems of mass also each have the coresponding increases.  

“m’ = m / (1-v^2 / c^2)^.5

m’ The function of increase of mass of two inertial systems moving relative to each other.”

# 23a The time dilation where if the frequency of one inertal system’s 137 J_ElctrnPhntnWvs in the its atom’s inner J_ElctrnShllOrbt is used as a space-time atomic clock is moving relative to another inertial systems’s 137 J_ElctrnPhtnWvs in its space-time atomic clock the J_GrvtyPhtns which are prportional to its clock frequency are dilated more of these J_Wvs pass a segment of the two systems J_EthrStrgs overlap so that from the system considerd as being stationary the other systems clock is going slower proportional to its J_GrvtyPhtns passing through the same J_EthrStrg overlap section of J_Wvs.

“t’ = t (1-v^2 / c^2)^.5″ # 23b The function of decreased number of J_Wvs of a moving systems clock relative to a stationnary system.


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DISCOVER AUGUST 2005 page 30 & 31 with my insert under images
October 30, 2007

The tiny strings above are open & the tiny strings above are closed strings of “The String Theory”. My previous Weblog DISCOVER AUGUST 2005 page 29 & 30 referred to “turning the page” of 29 to see pages 30 & 31 above. My J_v cosmic string is similar to the right side image on that page 29. The J_V cosmic string is made up of the above tiny strings. The J_Wv is formed by the open strings in the image on the left and the J_Wv cosmic string core that is moving the opposite direction in time is made up of the closed strings that forms gravity & magnetic attractive force fields. Mater and mass are composed of both open and closed tiny strings of “The String Theory”

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DISCOVER AUGUST 2005 page 29 & 30 with my insert under images
October 30, 2007

This image on the above right side is the nearest to a cosmic J_Wv (JLDoan Four Dimensional Wave). This scan is from DISCOVER AUGST 2005 page 29 letter from discover Stringing along a Theory. My cosmic J_Wv from the nucleus of an atom into its electron shell forming the electrons’ mass and charge with the splitting off into electromagnetic fields at times. The equal but opposite direction J_Wv core included cosmic string back to the nucleus forms the force field of gravity. As the cosmic J_Wv proceeds on out from the electron shells of the atom in the form of photons, other electromagnetic radiation, neutrinos and the force field that causes the universe to expand the cosmic string J_Wv core string force field of gravity’s’ inertia, momentum and other force effects on mass. The J_Wv cosmic string is composed of tiny strings of “The String Theory”. The vibratory J_Energy of these strings form the J_Aether, dark energy and mass. This J_Aether is also the medium of the J_Universe in which electromagnetic, gravity force fields are propagated. The next page 30 referred to in the left image’s article bottom line is in my next Weblog.

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Modified “Formulating the Universe”by unknown Author by #1 inserts at end
October 30, 2007

“Formulating the Universe-Chapter One

Chapter 1

PARTICLE OR WAVE

This volume derives a unified field theory and a unified particle theory.Formulating a unified theory is a feat not possible without taking advantage of

the insight gained through centuries of physical experiment and model building.This chapter and the next shall glean preliminary insights from the evolution of

physics theories.From 1650 to 1925 intense speculation prevailed regarding the nature of light

and the mechanism of light transmission.Scientific thought oscillated between

two opposing theoretical models–the corpuscular theory and the wave

theory–before a harmoniously paradoxical,duality was seen to explain

light and matter.”

“A.Wave

In several countries of Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries scientists studied

diffraction,or the spreading of light into shadows.It was first observed in

Italy in the 17th century.In England a worker observed the interference colors

of thin films,like an oil film on a wet road surface,or in the iridescent

colors of a butterfly’s wing.He felt that light consisted of vibrations

propagated at high speed.A scientist in Holland,Christian Huygens,improved

the wave theory.B.Particle

In England Sir Isaac Newton didn’t attach much importance to the small amount of

spreading of light and believed that rectilinear propagation could not be

reconciled with the wave theory.Polarization phenomena (which can be accounted for by transverse wave motion in a single plane) discovered in the 17th century by a Danish physicist,Erasmus Bartholin,and by Huygens were not consistent with the theory of

longitudinal waves (waves vibrating in the direction of propagation,like compression waves in a coiled spring),which was the only wave theory then

considered.Newton therefore supported the corpuscular theory,although he did

not reject the wave theory completely.”

“Isaac Newton (1642-1727),the discoverer of the law of gravity,calculus,and

Newtonian mechanics,championed the particle model of light.He believed light ,

is like a barrage of minute speeding bullets,” “and that the laws applicable to

material objects could account also for light behavior.Moving objects tend to

go in straight lines because of inertia;light travels in straight lines.An

obstacle in the path of a spray of bullets blanks out the spray behind it,just

as the illuminated object casts a shadow.The angle of incidence equals the

angle of reflection for a ball striking a wall and also for light reflected from

a smooth surface (specular reflection).Newton was able to explain diffuse

reflection of light by means of microscopic roughness of the reflecting surface.Newton’s particle model made the inverse square law of light intensity

intuitively obvious.It also brilliantly anticipated light pressure,and

accounted for absorption heating.However,the particle model did not do so well

with refraction.Refraction is the bending of light at the surface boundary of diverse media,such as air and water,or a vacuum and glass.This change of light ray direction

is always such that

n = Sin[Theta] / Sin[Theta r]

Csc [Theta r] Sin[Theta i] (1-1)

where sin i is the sine of the angle of incidence,sin r is the sine of the

angle of refraction,and n12 is the relative index of refraction of the two

transparent media.If the light goes from a vacuum to a refractive medium,the

law is

nm = (Sin[Theta i] / Sin[Theta x])


Csc[Theta x] Sin[Theta i] (1-2)

where nm is the index of refraction of the medium.Newton could account for this observed law of light (Snell’s law) only by

assuming that the particles of light receive a little push at the surface of the

medium and travel faster in the refractive medium than in air or a vacuum.”

“In spite of the opposing wave model,this view was dominant for over a century.But later careful measurements showed that light goes slower in a refractive

medium such as water or glass than in air or a vacuum,not faster.” ”According

to Newton’s particle theory,

c=(299792458)

299792458 Meters per second

nm=c/vm (1-3)

where vm is the speed of light in the medium and c is the speed of light in a

vacuum.However,the precise opposite was found to be true.In actuality,

nm=vm/c (1-4)

Because of this discrepancy, the particle model of light appeared to fail.”

At this point in this Text “Formulating the Universe” J_Wvs & J_Ethr & J_Phtns and classical wave fronts of electrical-magnetic radiation New and Unique explanation is inserted into this text chapters 1, 2 &3 all related to J_TOE as follows:

#1 J_Phtns are not like Newton conceived being like speeding bullets but are part of J_Ethr the medium where J_PhtnWvs that are toridal waves containing many J_ElmntryWvs tiny strings from “The String Theory” that create in an equal and opposite reaction in the core of the J_PhtnWvs a cosmological string (J_Ethr) that both the J_Ethr and the J_PhtnWvs move through space-time 90 degrees to the direction of electromagnetic spherical wavefront propagation.The classical spherical wavefront that actuates the J_PhtnsWvs that are moving through space-time in a direction 90 degrees to the classical wave fronts motion that moves at the speed of light ( c ) relative to the classical vacuum of space-time. If the J_Ethr is incorporated with J_ElctrnShll of an atom then the J_Phtn’s mass & momentum driven by the classical wavefront through the space-time of J_Ethr impacts the mass & momentum of J_ElctrnPhtnWv so that when a J_Quantum amount of energy in the J_ElctrnPhtnWvs that are resonant in the orbit around the nucleus of the atom will cause the addition of this J_Quantum that adds another J_ElctrnPhntnWv to that lower orbits J_ElctrnPhtnWvStrng to move to a J_ElctrnShll that is outside at an integer increase in its radius. The remainder of this chapter 1 and as well as the questions regarding the wave-particle and aether are answered later and at the start of part 3 of this jackbecomspeedne’s Weblog. 

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2nd Part J_Wv (JLDoan Electron_Photon Four Dimensional Wave)
October 24, 2007

The EW at the top of this Mathamatica 5 program output is 1/2 J_Wv Electron Wavelength (so there is an error in the 2nd orange text line at the top of this output).

Before the J_Wv Quark is further disclosed the inner shell of an atom is described: There are 137 J_Wv electron wavelengths tn the circumference of an atoms inner shell. This rounded off length is 6.46 (10^-15) cm. To approximate the image above of 2 wavelengths not to scale Pi was used as the wave length of 1 wavelength so 2Pi is the length of 2 J_Wvs shown. If the wave in the center was stretched to the x dimension of the box it would be a better approximation of my J_Wv. This image didn’t print in the first part of this Mathamatica 5 program output copied into the blog post before the last. I will see how it works this time so if anyone should want to print this blog post they could.

The image of the spiral before the image in the paragraph above is a general spiral that will be used later to describe the J_Wv J_Ether connecting the J_Proton to the J_Electron inner shell (JLDoan Electron_Photon Four Dimensional Wave).

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The only similar wave form to my J_Wv seen by me
October 24, 2007

This image is from Segal Conformal Physics and GraviPhotons

  This would be the crest of J_Wv Quark which orientate themselves as (up, down strange, or as other characteristics’. This J_Wv Quark is moving up along its center axis. Quarks are the building blocks that most physicist think all mater & energy are made of initially in the high temperature and pressure at the start of the big bang. My concept is the tiny strings of the “String Theory” came before quarks in that environment and are the building blocks or tiny strings of the “String Theory” which forms quarks, mass, energy, in my analogy to THEORY OF EVERYTHING. I haven’t conceived of how these tiny strings were formed into possibly the “brames” of the “String Theory”, in this environment. My concept of my J_Wv’s formation in going from the high temperature heat to less dense, lower temperature heat and pressure these tiny strings formed my J_Wv (like a drop of water moves along a stalagmite forming this core in this process).

I make this disclosure of my Jack L. Doan Concept of “brames” and J_Wv Quarks October 24, 2007  

At the bottom of this torus J_Ether cosmic (very small diameter) J_String is formed and reformed from the tiny strings of the “String Theory”as it comes down this inner cylinder that becomes the tube through another J_Wv or a J_Wv J_Ether J_String. 

The top Fig. 6-3 For a general twistor Z^3 is similar to J_Wv (JLDoan_Wave).

Both the top and bottom robinson image possibly with the tiny strings moving in the direction of the arrow heads form themselves into a membrane “brane” in going from the high pressure temperature heat to less high pressure temperature heat like my J_Wvs in taking the path of least resistance. The J_WV Quarks in a strong force attraction combining two in the up configuration with one in the down configuration for a proton forming J_Wvs and J_WV J_Ether J_String or vice versa for a neutron.

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J_Wv (JLDoan Electron_Photon Four Dimensional Wave)
October 23, 2007

This is the first Mathematical 5 program output in this blog. The graphics are similar to the previous post 1–22-07 but isn’t as elongated as that one, which it should be in a to scale Four Dimensional J_Wavelength Waveform. In the Graphics3D above there are 2 J_Wv lengths approximate volume of revolution about the -3.23 &+3.23 x axis in the second graphics profile. The small gap between the profile curve and its x axis forms a hole inside the toroidal J_Wvs’ there is small cylinder formed in this volume of revolution. This is the two wavelength part of the cosmic string J_Ether. 

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J_Wave top half of Profile
October 22, 2007

The first photo of the upper half of the profile J_Wv (Jack L, Doan_Wave) that will be evolved into the explanation of the information in this blog up to this point. This two dimensional profile is revolved about its x axis creating a volume of revolution which moves along the x axis in time giving one J_Wv Lgth (Jack L. Doan_Wave Length) in four dimensions. Within this volume there are the tiny strings of the “String Theory” of which the J_Wv is composed of moving along the x axis a very fine small diameter cosmic string moving at the speed of light in the opposite direction. This cosmic string is the J_Ether that has been the topic of my blog up to this post.

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Cosmic Triangle 5th image upload 2nd time
October 19, 2007

The Source Atoms in JLD’s Analogies approximated location in the Finite Spherical Universe:

Pick the point in galaxy cluster with 0.44 Relative Density of Matter 0.6 Relative Density of :

Dark Energy (JLD#1Analogy aEther) at -0.04 Spherical – Curvature of Space time #1JLD Analogy Universe at this point on Ternary Plot. This point is in Galaxy Cluster Data but not in the Super Nova Data on -0.04 Curvature of Space time #1JLD Analogy Universe. Within these source Atoms the start of #17JLDAnalogy Spiral String aEnergy (Higgs Particle-Energy) and aEther Unified Field Theory including Theory of Everything. Similar Cosmic Triangle to Scientific American February 2001 Page_48 Modified by Jack L. Doan to show #1JLD Analogy aEnergy String Quintessence, Universe.

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#l JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy and aEther Unified Field Theory Including Theory of Everything not only explains the macro outer limits of the finite universe but also the microscopic and smaller inner limits of the mass and energy of our universe and how chemistry, magnetism, electricity, radiation and other physics are unified. Chemistry with the standard function of valance electrons in #2 JLD Analogy through #16 via #1 JLD Analogy with (vacuum energy – dark energy aEther with energy outward pressure as well as gravity inward pressure) are balanced in the electron shells in integral points relative to the nucleus of atoms so as to create the valance function.

#l JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory gives aEther in a static but JLD dynamic universe which Einstein dismissed. Now continuing the quote, next paragraph, “one proposal is that some heretofore undiscovered symmetry in fundamental physics results in a cancellation of large effects, zeroing out the vacuum energy.”

#l JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy (dark energy – vacuum energy) Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory of universe with aEther, gives the cancellation of the most of vacuum energy that Einstein cosmological constant gave rise to.

Next before proceeding, another quote from Scientific American, September 2000, page 104, right hand column of article “A New paradigm for Thomas Kuhn by Steve Fuller”. “Fuller marshals an astonishing detailed grasp of recent intellectual history to argue that science, as we know it, has outlived its usefulness. The paradigms of normal science are not the ideal form of science, he says, but rather “an arrested social movement in which the natural spread of knowledge is captured by a community that grants relative advantage by forcing other communities to rely on its expertise to get what they want.”

Fuller is especially effective at reconstructing the debates between Ernst Mach and Max Planck about the science at the beginning of the 20th century, which he takes as emblematic of all such debates since. In Fuller’s dichotomous scheme, Mach championed an instrumentalist philosophy of science; Planck was a realist. Mach lodged science in every day psychological experience; Planck reduced everyday experience to the ultimate constituents of physics. Mach exalted technology; Planck promoted abstract problem solving. Mach was a liberal democrat, intent on empowering “citizen scientists”; Planck was the state corporatist, who thought ordinary folks had no claim on “real” science.

Kuhn is squarely on the side of Planck, Fuller says. The paradigms of normal science, Fuller goes on to assert confer a phony legitimacy and autonomy of scientific practice. Alternative versions of the “truth” are delegitimized, and establishment science (with its consumerist-military alliances) becomes the only game in town. Young scientists are acculturated within the paradigm and spend the rest of their careers tweaking theories. Dissent is frowned upon. The real problems of society are ignored in the pursuit of the next decimal place.”

Though I haven’t read Kuhm, I agree with Fuller. From fundamental facets of my Analogy of Science page 2 of Jack L. Doan’s Analogies, page 30 of quote from “The Relativity Explosion,” chapter 8 matches principles, page 121, my discussion on this page 30 points out why I agree with Fuller.

49

My new paradigm presented in JLD Analogies as the way to JLD’s Unified Field Theory including JLD’s Theory of Everything.

In reference to the ternary graph, page 46 above, vacuum energy is proportional to dark energy both of which, by JLD Analogies, are not constant in energy for volume of space but are proportional to #l JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy which is proportional to JLD Analogy String aEther. Quote from page 47, Scientific American, January 2001 The Quintessential Universe by Jeremiah P. Ostriker and Paul J. Steinhardt, mid page, “Until recently, cosmologists have focused simply on proving the existence of dark energy. Having made a convincing case they are now turning their attention to a deeper problem: Where does the energy come from? The best-known possibility is that the energy is inherent in the

fabric of space. Even if a volume of space were utterly empty – without a bit of matter and radiation – it would still contain this energy. Such energy is a venerable notion that dates back to Albert Einstein and his attempt in 1917 to construct a static model of the universe. Like many leading scientists over the centuries, including Isaac Newton, Einstein believed that the universe is unchanging, neither contracting or expanding. To coax stagnation from his general theory of relativity, he had to introduce vacuum energy or, in his terminology, a cosmological constant. He adjusted the value of the constant so that its gravitation repulsion would exactly counterbalance the gravitational attraction of matter.”

Now the creation of my Analogies #2 through #16 that will be studied similar to my study of the creation of #l JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Unified Field Theorem including JLD Theory of Everything. The environment for the creation of #2 JLD Analogy through JLD #16 Analogy is different than it was for the creation of #1 JLD Analogy where in the first place the largeness of this spiral in relation to its developing atom; whereas my other analogies are smaller in relation to the same atom they are part of or related to. The #2 JLD Analogy of the Electron Cloud of its related atom formed by its #l JLD Spiral String aEnergy that creates in its related atom as well as in other atoms in high density of parts of other atoms related to #l JLD Analogy spiral parts of aEnergy strings so as to come in contact with other parts of the inward bound spiral string that creates spin-off of aEnergy into very small electron cloud particle size bundles or quantum bundles of split-off aEnergy string that stay in like quantum.

My next #17JLDAnalogy will be in developing the explanation of the Higgs Particle which if CERN’s LEP (Large Electron-Positron collider was allowed to be extended instead of being dismantled due to CERN’s (decision making process) politics based on money would become the largest particle 115 GeV Higgs Mass compared to the 1 GeV protron Mass, which might turn out to be part of #1JLDAnalogy.

Quote from Scientific American February 2001 page 17 & 19. PHYSICS_ELEMENTARY P PARTICLES Higgs Won’t Fly CERN declines a massive opportunity to find the Higgs particle

“Postulated independently by British Physicist Peter Higgs and others in 1964, the Higgs plays a unique role in particle physics.In one guise, the Higgs is a field permeating the universe and giving the other particles their mass. If the field were turned off, the particles making up your body would presumably fly apart at the speed of light like so many photons. We have no way of directly detecting the all-pervasive Higgs field, but its other guise– individual Higgs particles, like tiny concentrated knots in the field–should be producible in violent collisions at accelerators. By studying the particle, physicists can verify the theory and pin down the Higgs’s many unknown properties.

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In 2000 researchers optimized the 11- year -old LEP to conduct one last search for the Higgs, pushing it to achieve collision energies of 206.5 billion electron volts (GeV)–about 14GeV beyond its original design parameters. Most likely the Higgs would be too massive to fall within LEP’s extended reach, but in the summer, physicists saw signs of Higgs particles. Out of By comparison, a proton is 1 GeV millions of collisions, nine produced Higgs candidates. A one-month extension to LEP yielded additional results, sufficient to conclude that the odds that the results were noise were one in 250–a tantalizing result but uncertain to proclaim “discovery.” The data indicated that the Higgs has a mass of about 115- GeV.(the remaining collision energy goes into creating a so-called Z particle at 91 GeV). By comparison, a proton is 1 GeV. A 115-GeV Higgs would agree nicely with predictions of Supersymmetry models–the idea that particles in the Standard Model have “Supersymmetric” partners.”

2-3-2001

Next, the development of #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy (Higgs particle-energy) as part of #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy and aEther Unified Field Theory Including Theory of Everything in exploring the possibility the spiral radius of this combination is less than the finite radius of the spherical universe. The first question is how much of the #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy (Higgs particle – energy) extends beyond the radius of the proton particle #3 JLD Analogy. First, could this be the #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy (Higgs particle-energy) that extends to the radii of the different levels of electron clouds in its associated atom? Also, could this #17 JLD Analogy be in combination with #1 JLD Analogy be the super symmetric partners?

This mass 115 GeV (the remaining collision energy goes into creating Z particle at 91 GeV). By comparison , a proton is 1 GeV. This data from top left of page 18 of Scientific American February 2001. Allegorically the start of #1 JLDAnalogy with this #17 JLD from the 1 GeV proton page 36. First see if #17 JLD Analogy could be the link between the proton and the electron cloud like in hydrogen atom. Allegorize the smashing of a hydrogen proton by a positron accelerated by 206.5 billion electron volts (GeV) about 14 GeV greater than LEP(Large Electron Positron Collider) was designed for. The original LEP would have been, I assume, 206.5 GeV minus 14 GeV. So, the original LEP was 192.5 GeV. The #17 JLD Analogy (Higgs dark energy) Spiral String aEnergy equals 115 billion electron volts (GeV). #2 JLD Analogy Spiral String electron aEnergy electron volts with the value of 1 electron volt times 115 is the energy imparted to an electron when it is accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt from “Physics for Engineering Technology, page 105, last sentence, third paragraph. Physics for Engineering Technology by Joseph, Pomeranz, Prince and Sacher.

Now, before continuing, here is a quote from Popular Science, February 2001, page 74, second paragraph. “But if the universe is flat, what is dark energy? Although there are a number of proposals, says Perlmutter, no one really has any clue what it could be. And the best theoretical calculation of the value of the cosmological constant overestimates the weight of all the dark energy in the universe by a whooping factor of 10^100! Exercising his gift for understatement, Turner wonders if “maybe we are missing some deep principle.”"

The principle of #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Unified Field Theory including JLD Theory of Everything is integrating this information with #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String a Energy Unified Field Theory including JLD Theory of Everything. The start of this integrating is with #17 JLD Analogy

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Spiral String aEnergy as a part of its associated atoms mass.

E=mc^2 m=E/c^2 115 GvE/(2.998(10^8) meter per second)^2=M

M=8.534(10^-26)(newton)eV/meter/seconds ^2

Reviewing mass in “Physics for Engineering Technology”, page 124, Momentum equals mass * velocity =mV.

If an experiment indicates that two different objects have the same amount of inertia, the two objects may be said to have the same inertial mass. Originally the gram and the kilogram were defined in terms of the mass of a standard volume of water at normal temperature (20 degrees C): The mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water is 1 gram.

From page 126 density = mass/volume using the Greek letter p (rho) is usually used as a

mathematical symbol for density. The definition for density gives us the formula p=m/V

It is obvious from the definition of the gram and the kilogram that the density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter (1 gm. / cm.^3) or 1 kilogram per liter (1 kg. / l.). A common method of measuring the mass of objects. The indicator of the balance arm is centered when the force of gravity on the object equals the force of gravity on the standard mass. Since the operation of the equal – arm balance depends on the force of gravity, the mass determined in this way is called the gravitational mass of the object. Many experiments have established that the inertial mass and the gravitational mass of an object are equal.

If the object and the balance are moved to a different planet (or to a different place on the earth), the force of gravity will change. Before continuing on page 127 a different way of weighing an object on a spring scale “indicates how the force of gravity acting upon a 1-kg. Mass will vary.)” A 1 kg. Weight at the Canal Zone Panama = 2.198 pounds on an American spring scale and in Greenland it equals 2.209 pounds and on the moon = 0.365 pounds. The inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal on a balance with standard weight that will measure the mass of the standard weight the same even on the moon or a different planet or at a different place on the earth. The rate of change in momentum equal mass * the rate of change in velocity (acceleration).

Page 129 The force of gravity (in standard location on earth where gravity is 9.8 meters per second ^2) is usually referred to as the weight W, if the force W is the only force acting, the object would have an acceleration of 9.8 meters / second^2, using Newton’s second law of motion:

FR=ma W=mg=(standard mass) 5 kilogram (9.8 meters per second/^2)

=49kg. – meters / second^2 = 49 newtons

Page 131 Newton’s Third Law of Motion “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction” is stated on this page.

Page 148 Centripetal force Fc=mv^2/r

Page 149 For a rotating mass F=ma centripetal = m4pi^2 frequency ^2r

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Reviewing mass for a second time in text Introduction to College Physics by Rogers D. Rusk

page xvii “The mass of an object is the measure of its inertia and inertia is the tendency of a body to resist being set in motion or to resist any change in motion. It would be as difficult to throw a “fast” baseball horizontally on the moon as it would on the earth, though the ball would actually weigh only one-sixth what it does on the earth. The student , as he progresses through the subject of mechanics , must learn that exact meaning of mass and distinguish it clearly from weight. Mass is the measure of inertia,. Weight is a force, the earth’s gravitational pull on an object.

Since an object of twice the mass of an other has twice the weight at a particular place , weight is proportional to mass.”

Page 82 Newton’s second law; the dyne; the poundal; the newton

“Newton’s second law gives a quantitative measure of the effect of an unbalanced force when bodies interact.

Second law: The acceleration (rate of change in velocity) of any body is directly proportional to the force acting on it and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body. If the force is doubled , the acceleration of the body with respect to any chosen frame of reference is doubled and so on. But if the mass, m, is increased, the force, F, must be likewise increased in order to produce the same acceleration, a, these relations are expressed in the fundamental formula of dynamics:

F = ma [Eq. 6-1]

: For the exception, when an object travels with an extremely high velocity, see Einstein’s theory of relativity

Page 164 (4) The velocity of light is an upper limit which the velocity of an object can only approach and never exceed. More surprising perhaps than all else, Einstein predicted that matter is a form of energy and can be converted into energy according to the formula E (energy) = mc^2 where m represents a mass and c represents the velocity of light”

Page 597 Atomic Mass Unit and Atomic Weights

“One-sixteenth of the mass of an oxygen 16 atom, or 1.66 (10^-24) gram, is now taken to be the unit of atomic mass. It is called an atomic mass unit. On this scale the ordinary hydrogen atom has a mass slightly more than one mass unit and the average of the isotopes which make up natural silver, for instance, is 107.88 mass units. Atomic weights hence need not be thought of as purely relative numbers but may be thought of as actual weights (or masses) in terms of this new unit.

One might expect then, if hydrogen (or the proton which is a hydrogen nucleus) is the basic constituent of all matter, that the mass of the hydrogen atom should be exactly 1/16th that of oxygen 16. However, a single hydrogen atom by itself has a slightly larger mass. When protons (and neutrons) combine to form a heavier nucleus there is some loss of mass which is transformed into energy according to the Einstein energy-mass relation. The shrinkage in mass represents a loss of energy. Conversely, to separate an atomic nucleus into its components, this amount of energy much be restored to the atom. But this is not so easy and the amount required for the stable atoms is very large; this explains why they are so stable.”

Page 559 Path of Electron In Magnetic Field

“If an electron stream is produced in an evacuated tube by using an accelerating anode with a hole in it, the undeflected beams at A and produce a visible spot on a fluorescent screen. If the stream is deflected during a portion of its path by the magnet NS, the beam will strike the screen at B and the mass of the electron can be calculated from the measured deflection AB. It turns out to be

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Me = 0.000000000000000000000000000911(10^-28)gm

This is 1/1836 the mass of a hydrogen atom, and the electron is thought to have a diameter l/100,000 that of a hydrogen atom.” I clarify the diameter of an electron of is the shell diameter to the spiral string aEnergy spherical shell diameter of the cloud around its proton.

Page 559 Variation of Mass With Velocity (Einstein’s theory)

“Measurements by Kauffman and others on the deflection of electrons of different velocities confirmed Einstein’s equation which gives the mass mv at any velocity v in terms of the rest mass m0 (rest with respect to the observer) and the velocity of light, c, as follows

mv = m0/(1-v^2/c^2)^½ [Eq. 36-5]

It will be seen from this that the velocity of the electron can only approach the velocity of light but never reach it, for at that velocity its mass would become infinite.

Page 560 The Ratio of Charge to Mass For An Electron

As previously stated, it was not at first possible to obtain separately either the charge or the mass of an electron, and Eq 36-3 was actually used first to obtain the ratio of charge to mass, but e/m solving for this ratio instead of for mass, we have

e/m = v/Hr [Eq. 36-6]

In which the quantities, v, H, and r are easily obtainable. This ratio is useful because it occurs in so many equations involving the behavior of electrons, and the experimental value is

e/m = 1.76(10^7) abcoul/gm

= 1.76(10^8) coul/gm”

Page 158 Gravitation And Our Universe

“In the mks system, it has the value

G = 6.67 (10^-11) newton * meters^2/kg^2

In the English system (when the masses are measured in lbs, the distance in feet, and the force in poundals),

G = 1.066 (10^-9) poundals * ft^2/pounds ^2″

Page 82 in the middle of Mass versus Weight

“According to agreement by the International Committee on Weights and Measures this standard reference point is any point where the acceleration of gravity, g, is exactly 980.665 cm/sec^2 or 32.174 ft/sec^2.”

Page 159 Determination of the Mass of the Earth

but first Newton’s law of gravity [eq 11-2] from page 157

F = Gm1m2/r^2 [Eq 11-2]

“Knowing the value of the gravitational constant, Newton’s law of gravitation [Eq. 11-2] makes it possible to calculate the force between any two masses when the distance between their centers of gravity is known. Conversely, if the force is known and one of the masses is unknown, it can be calculated. Since we know that the force between the earth and a one gram mass is one gram of force or 980 dynes, we can hence calculate the mass of the earth.

Page 160 Gravitation and Our Universe

“Let M be the unknown mass of the earth. Then by eq. 11-2

980 dynes = 6.67(10^-8)*1(gm)*M(gm)/r^2(cm^2)

Where r = radius of earth = 4,000 miles = 640,000,000 (64(10^7)) centimeters (approximately). From this

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M = 6(10^27)grams (approx.)

= 6 thousand billion billion metric tons

(1 thousand kilograms = 1 metric ton)

= 6.6 thousand billion billion English tons

It should not be forgotten that when the earth pulls on a 1 gram mass with a l gram force, the 1 gram mass is also pulling on the earth with the same force (Newton’s third law).”

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4th image after 3rd part this blog section page 44
October 18, 2007


  44

" Pluto

Neptune

Uranus

Saturn

Jupiter

Ceres

Mars

Earth

Venus

Mercury

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Newton put all of gravities effects together later after Kepler’s Law above. Then Einstein showed the masses outside of the solar system above had some effect on the planet’s orbits." My analogy integrates this information and shows that JLD Unified Field Theory applies to gravity, momentum, magnetism, electron charge fields, why masses moving relative to the rest of the mass in the universe move along a space-time curve that appears to be a straight line that gives centrifugal force.

“Chemistry” Addison-Wesley, third edition, copyright 1993, by Wilbraham , Staley, Simpson, Matta, page 247.

“In contrast, the quantum mechanical model is primarily mathematical. It has few, if any, analogies in the visible world.” Before the above on page 247 another quote “The energy level of an electron is the region around the nucleus where it is likely to be moving, the rungs of a ladder are analogists ton the fixed energy levels of the electrons.” Page 260 of the above book 11 thru 7 the Quantum Concept

“Planck was trying to quantitatively describe why a body like a chunk of iron appears to change color as it is heated. First it appears black, then red, yellow, white, and blue as its temperature increases. Planck found he could explain this if he assumed that the energy of a body changes only in small discrete units. By analogy, a brick wall can be increased or decreased a size only by units of 1 or more bricks. Planck showed mathematically that the amount of radiant energy, E absorbed or emitted by a body is proportional to the frequency of the radiation. E (symbol proportional to) V or E = hx V

h = 6.6262 (10^-34) J ” J – a joule of energy.

JLD Analogy of the Ten Dimensions of JLD Analogies of Spiral String aEnergy and aEther in Unified Field Theory of Everything:

First Dimension Line between 2 points

Second Dimension 2 lines between 3 points

Third Dimension 4 lines between 4 points

Fourth Dimension Time

Fifth Dimension Spacetime arc of outward spiral string aEnergy

Sixth Dimension Spacetime arc of inward spiral string aEnergy

Seventh Dimension Combination of Fifth & Sixth Dimensions aEther

Eighth Dimension Electron spiral string aEnergy quantum

Ninth Dimension Proton spiral string aEnergy quantum

Tenth Dimension Neutron, photon and all other spiral string aEnergy quantum’s

JLD’s Analogies of Science by present day microscopes or transducers let aEnergy and aEther of my #1 Analogy be integrated into “dark energy” in quoting from the article “The Quintessential Universe” by Jeremiah P. Ostriker and Paul J. Steinhardt in Scientific American, January 2001, page 47. In speaking of the normal mass dark mass and dark energy that makes up the universe quoting from page 49, part of its upper right paragraph “although the dark energy represents a huge amount of mass, it is spread so thinly that its energy is less than four electron volts per cubic millimeter – which, to a particle physicist, is unimaginably low. The weakest known force is nature involves an energy density 10^50 times greater.”

Page 46

“Extrapolating back in time, vacuum energy gets even more paradoxical.”

#l JLD Analogy along with the other 16 JLD Analogies integrated into the 10 dimensions of the aEnergy string theories making up in the case of #l JLD Analogy aEther and the theory of everything in JLD’s Unified Field Theory accounts for the unimaginably weak force in every cubic millimeter of the finite universe. Like in the above quoted paragraph lets assume that the average dark energy in JLD’s Analogies is 4 electron volts for every cubic millimeter in the finite universe. Assume that even if this dark energy was visible in the aEnergy string of JLD’s Analogies the cross section of this average string would be so small that the microscopes and present day transducers cannot make it visible to our human eyes.

Like in the quoted article above, if the #l JLD Analogy aEnergy (dark energy) was 10^50 times that average dark energy it would be at the energy density that the force of gravity is at in the vicinity of the solar system on an average, lets assume: These spiral strings in #1 JLD Analogy when the inward part of this (dark energy) aEnergy on its way toward the nucleus of its source atom crosses the outward part of another spiral of (aEnergy in this given aEther) of another atom in a mass at some distance with the inverse square of this distances gravity force would be an attractive force that would tend to decrease that distance.

Next assume that when similar spirals at many magnitudes of greater distances nearer to the in spacetime of these spiral strings of aEnergy (dark energy) that is much weaker by this magnitudes of greater radii to nearer to where the outward parts turn to become inward parts of their respective spirals these light parts of aEnergy (dark energy) repels each other causing the universe to expand in this volume of aEther causing galaxies to be in expansion relative to each other.

The next step is to fit the assumptions above into a hypothesis that works in JLD Analogy Theory of Everything in a Unified Field Theorem. On the same page 49 of Scientific American a quote from mid-page “The universe expands at an accelerating pace. The growing vacuum energy comes at the expense of the gravitational field.” In #l JLD Analogy expansion out to the spiral outward part of (vacuum energy – dark energy) aEnergy where the spiral turns into the inward part of the spiral string and this is not at the expense of #l JLD Analogies gravitational field. Next continue the quote next paragraph.

“The concepts may sound strange, and even Einstein found them hard to swallow. He viewed the static universe, the original motivation for vacuum energy, as an unfortunate error that ought to be dismissed. But the cosmological constant, once introduced, would not fade away. Theorists soon realized that quantum fields possess a finite amount of vacuum energy, a manifestation of quantum fluctuations that conjure up pairs of “virtual” particles from scratch. An estimated total vacuum energy produced by all known fields predicts a huge amount – 120 orders of magnitude more than the energy density in all other matter. That is, though it is hard to picture, the evanescent virtual particles should contribute a positive, constant energy density, which would imply negative pressure. But if this estimate were true, in acceleration of epic proportions would rip apart atoms, stars and galaxies. Clearly the estimate is wrong. One of the major goals of unified theories of gravity has been to figure out why.”

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Subsitute For (the bad uploaded image”Mystery Of Dark Energy by Jim Wilson)
October 16, 2007
“In what is widely regarded as the most important scientific discovery of 1998, researchers turned their telescopes to measure the rate at which cosmic expansion was deceleratingand instead saw that it was accelerating. They have been gripping the steering wheel very tightly ever since.As deeply mysterious as acceleration is, if you just acceptit without trying to fathom its cause, it solves all kinds of problems. Before 1998, cosmologists had been troubled by discrepancies in the age, density and clumpiness of the universe. Acceleration made everything click together. It is one of the conceptual keys, along with other high-precision observations and innovative theories,that have unlocked the next level of the big bang theory.The big bang is often described as an eventthat occurred long ago, a great explosion that created the universe. In actuality, the theory says nothing about the moment of creation,which is a job for quantum physics (or metaphysics). It simply states that as far back as we can extrapolate, the cosmos has been expanding, thinning out and cooling down. The big bang is best thought of not as a singular event but as an on going process, a gradual molding of order out of chaos. The recent observations have given this picture a coherence it never had before.” This quote from Scientific American’2004 issues CD Special Report THE FOUR KEYS TO COSMOLOGY article February 2004 .The concept of Jack L. Doan of a more static but regenerating and degenerating at the end of our present time acceleration. At this time in my Web log I will substitute these quotes for the image Mystery Of Dark Energy by Jim Wilson which I wrongly referenced as being from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.(magazine). J.L.D October 16 ,2007. “From the perspective of life on Earth,cosmic history started with inflation—a celestial reboot that wiped out whatever came before and left the cosmos a featureles splace. The universe was without form,and void. Inflation then filled it with an almost completely uniform brew of radiation.The radiation varied from place to place in anutterly random way; mathematically, it was as random as random could be. Gradually the universe imposed order on itself. The familiar particles of matter, such as electrons and protons, condensed out of the radiation like water droplets in a cloud of steam. Sound waves coursed through the amorphous mix, giving it shape. Matter steadily wrested control of the cosmos away from radiation. Several hundred thousand years after inflation, matter declared final victory and cut itself loose from radiation. This era and its dramatic coda have now been probed by high-precision observations of the fossil radiation [see “The Cosmic Symphony,” on page 44]. Over the ensuing eons, matter organized itself intobodies of increasingly large size: sub galactic scraps, majesticgalaxies, galactic clusters, great walls of galaxies.The universe we know—a set of distinct bodies separated by vast expanses of essentially empty space—is a fairly recent development, cosmologically speaking. Thisarrangement has now been systematically mapped [see“Reading the Blueprints of Creation,” on page 54]. Startingseveral billion years ago, matter has been losing control to cosmic acceleration. Evidently the big bang has gotten a second wind, which is good for it but will be bad for us. The ever faster expansion has already arrested the formation of large structures and, if it continues, could rip apart galaxies and even our planet [see “From Slow down to Speedup,” on page 62].In developing a cohesive and experimentally successful account of cosmic history, cosmologists have settled the disputes that once animated their field, such as the old debates between the big bang theory and the steady state theory and between inflation and its alternatives. Nothing in science is absolutely certain, but researchers now feel that their time is best spent on deeper questions, beginningwith the cause of the cosmic acceleration. Although the discovery of acceleration was revolutionary,cosmologists’ initial response was fairly conservative.They dusted off an idea of Einstein’s, the so-called cosmological constant, which represents a new type of energy—an example of what is more generally known as dark energy. But many physicists are thinking that a revolutionary discovery calls for a revolutionary response. Maybe the law of gravity works differently on gigantic scales than it does on humble, everyday ones [see “Out ofthe Darkness,” on page 68].Just as a nuclear missile cannot be fired unless two keys are turned simultaneously, the explosive progress in cosmology has depended on multiple observational and theoretical keys being turned at once. Will the rush of new ideas lead to chaos? Will order reemerge? Must the cosmos be “preposterous,” as one of the authors of this special report once put it? Or will it start to make sense again?” —George Musser, staff editorNASA/WMAPSCIENCE TEAM 

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3rd image After 3rd Part My Blog
October 15, 2007

37 9-20-2000

The electron cloud in the atoms shells as they rotate about the earth’s axis and taking the path of least resistance are skewed perpendicular in torus shapes that produce a magnetic field parallel to the earth’s axis producing north and south poles a magnetic compass can detect. The formula to be developed and disclosed as the JLD Unified Field Theory is developed comparing #1 JLD Analo.and #4 JLD Analo.the gravity string aEnergy and electrons energy in forming the magnetic field. The counter clockwise spiraling out of aEnergy in #l JLD Analo.due to the rotation clockwise of the earth looking down at the north pole skews the #l JLD Analo.so that at the electron level #4 JLD Analo.aligns the electron cloud particles spiral fields per the right hand rule of magnetic fields. The JLD Unified Field Theory formula comparing aEnergy of #1 JLD Analogy String aEnergy and #4 JLD Analogy String aEnergy compared to electron energy will be developed. The unifying formula of gravity compared with magnetism is to be developed which will be the Unified Field Theory solution that Albert Einstein initiated. First in studying energy start with the quantum theory of radiation. The following quote from “Introduction of College Physics” by Rogers D. Rusk Appleton–Century–Crofts, Inc. New York Copyright 1954 page 263 Radiation and Quantum Theory. “The basic idea on which this theory rests finds application when we discuss the nature of the atom. According to Planck’s Theory, the energy of a quantum is Eq (ergs) = hf [Eq. 17-4]

Where h is a fundamental constant called the Planck constant the value of which equals 6.62 * 10^-27 erg-seconds, and f is the frequency of the radiation. It will be noticed that as the frequency of the radiation is increased, so also is the energy of a quantum of that radiation increase.”

Quantum Waves

Small 10^-27 meter OD spirals associated with nodes of the atoms #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy radiation outside of its main stream. These small spiral particles, like photons, have their energy level frequency, the most basic infra-red heat energy radiation quantum frequency. These waves don’t proceed on a straight space time curve like photons but on a space time curve like microwaves.

Researching further Discover October 1993, page 98 “The Ultimate Vanishing” by Tim Folger “If Stephen Hawkins is right, and black holes evaporate like snowballs in the sun, then the past is forever severed from the present, the present from the future. For Physicists, that is the stuff of nightmares.”

Stephen Hawkins and the other physicists in this article are giants on whose shoulders I, not a physicist, can stand on with my further theories that answers their dilemma. As the Australian’s say, No Worry.

“Susskind, a theoretical physicist at Stanford, and many of his prominent colleagues have lately been pondering the ultimate fate of black holes. Those mysterious, life swallowing chasms in space and time that form, physicists believe, when the core of massive stars implode. In particular, Susskind and his associates, have been considering the very last moments of a black hole’s existence because the death throws of these bizarre non-objects pose an enormous challenge to science. We’ve encountered a major paradox that nobody knows how to reconcile says Susskind.”

I am working on this paradox with my JLD’s Analogies, my Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory. From Discover 1993, page 101 ” most surprising and counter intuitive discoveries of modern physics – namely, the finding that a vacuum is not empty but is instead a heating sea of pairs of

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“virtual” particles of matter and anti-matter. These particles spontaneously wink into and out of existence, annihilating each other in a display of subtle fireworks too feeble for us to notice. How do these particles arise from nothingness? According to quantum mechanics, no system, not even a vacuum, is utterly bereft of energy. Fluctuating fields of energy pervade the void. Sometimes this energy congeals into a pair of particles. For the briefest of instants, a particle and its anti-matter doppelganger flash into existence, living on energy of the vacuum. Normally these virtual particles don’t stick around for long – they mutually annihilate, transformed once more into energy before anyone even notices their existence, and so repay their debt to the vacuum.

But if there is some external source of energy apart from the vacuum – an electric field or powerful gravitational field – the virtual particles can get enough of an energy boost from the field to survive in the observable universe. They become real particles. In physics, however, there is no such thing as a free lunch. If one system gains energy, another must lose it.”

From the quote above my #1 Analogy is intuitive, not counter intuitive, on the inward spiral of aEnergy at the center of its respective atom particles are created in its nucleus. In a volume of space time that has a very high density of atoms and #1 Analogies then the phenomenon of black-hole would be present for observation. In lower density volumes mini black holes would not be observable.

Quote continues “when particle pairs pop out of the vacuum outside a black hole, they can hijack a minute fraction of the hole’s gravitational energy; the virtual particles become real by using energy that had been warping the space around the black hole. With this extra energy, the particles escape sinking immediately back into the restless void. The borrowed energy not only imbues the virtual particles with mass but also gives them a welcome-to-the-real-world kick of momentum: the particles are born on the fly, like bees boiling from a hive, with a random assortment of trajectories. Some of these trajectories point toward the black hole, some away. Usually the black holes capture both particles, and their energy simply returns to the hole. In that case there is no net loss of energy from the black hole but occasionally, Hawking showed, some of these vacuum-spawned particles, born outside the black hole’s point of no return have enough energy and are aimed in the right direction to flee into space, separated from their anti-partners. When these particles escape from the black hole they take with them some of the black hole’s energy. Ever since Einstein’s Theory of Relativity physicists have realized that mass and energy are interchangeable, so that black hole’s energy loss effectively translates into a loss of mass, and the hole shrinks.”

#1 through #16 and many more JLD Analogies in a subtle and somewhat weaker way than the high density of particles and energy in black holes where the #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy on the inward part of this spiral of each atom involved creates very powerful gravity in this high density aEther and in the analogised end of this inward part of these spirals new particles are created that in the analogy these particles are formed in the nucleus of present and in some case new atoms. The anti-particles are also formed into the neutrons when more than one proton and electron are created. I believe that God (creation intelligent formulator) controls.

Quote from Scientific American October 2000 page 18 “Astronomy Black Holes” titled “The Hole Shebang” “Black Holes and Galaxies may be entwined from birth”. “One of the great accomplishments

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of astronomy over the past century has been to explain stars. Despite their amazing variety, stars all go through the same basic life cycle, driven by a few basic processes such as gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion. Now astronomers are on the verge of a similar synthesis for galaxies. From the diffuse ban of light we call the Milky Way to the blinding bright quasars near the edge of known space, galaxies all take shape in much the same way: through mutual interactions and – according to the latest findings – the exertions of super massive black holes.”

#1 JLD Analogy in forming aEther can exert its effect on galaxies through its weak force gravity. “According to the latest findings” above this force in high density fields can collapse energy, and cosmic dust and/or gas, into stars and their collapse into black holes accumulated at the center of the galaxies can per JLD Unified Field Theory also new stars by accumulations of alto ^ alto’s of atoms created through the subtle #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory.

Quote of the (The Hole Shebang) continued second paragraph: “Black Holes are notoriously destructive, but their creative potential has gradually come to light. Observation of quasars in the 1960′s and 1970′s suggested that only a giant hole – a mass of a million or a billion suns – could power them and by the late 1980′s mammoth holes had taken the credit for all kinds of anomalously luminous galaxies. The pace of discovery has accelerated lately, helped along by the ultra high resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Long Baseline Array radial telescope. Stars and interstellar gas clouds near the center of many galaxies are moving abnormally fast whipped up by the gravity of colossal unseen body – most probably a hole, although alternatives both prosaic (dense star clusters) and exotic (neutrino balls) have not been ruled out.”

High density #1 JLD Analogies that appear as black holes on the inward parts of these aEnergy spirals producing extreme gravity in this concentration of aEther is the “unseen body” quoted above though alternative. “The count of super massive holes is now up to 34, and two remarkable trends have emerged. First, super massive black holes appear, not just in quasars or quasar like galaxies, but in the unostentatious ones too. In fact, the only requirement seems to be an ellipsoidal shape: Either an elliptical galaxy or a bulge in an otherwise flat galaxy, as in our Milky Way. Completely flat galaxies lack large holes. Second, the mass of each hole is roughly proportional to the mass of the ellipsoidal host (as estimated from its brightness). Holes weigh in at 0.15 percent of the mass of their elliptical galaxies or bulges. The Milky Way’s modest hole befits its modest bulge.”

The above quote takes JLD Theory of Everything nearly to its outer limits. In a galaxy the inward part of all the atoms (#1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy) forming the majority of the galaxy’s aEther in conjunction with the majority of the galaxy’s gravity. At the center of an ellipsoidal shape like that of the galaxy or a bulge in the center of a flatter galaxy the inward spiraling of the aEnergy forms aEther and the gravity at very high density. This is observable as a black hole. The aEnergy on its inward spiral like on its outward spiral in this string #1JLD Analogy takes the path of least resistance of all the #1 JLD Analogies in the galaxies as well as #1 JLD Analogies in the aEther that extends across all galaxies in the finite steady state universe. Quote continued from “The Hold Shebang”, page 18, October 2000 Scientific American. “A third trend has now been discovered by two teams writing in the August 10 Astrophysical Journal Letters: Carl Gephardt and John Kormendy of the University of

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Texas at Austin, Douglas Richstone of the University of Michigan, and their colleagues; and Laura Ferrarese of the University of California at Los Angeles and David Merritt of Rutgers University. These researchers found that of a black hole is related to the average velocity of stars within its elliptical host, even in areas beyond the hole’s direct influence. In fact within the error bars, the velocity correlation is perfect. It almost has the status of a new law of nature, a kin to Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion. “I’m surprised it’s as tight as it is,” Richstone says.

Although the two teams disagree as to the precise formula for this correlation, both analyses imply that black holes are somehow tailor- made for their galaxies. But how? Did the black hole come first and then determine the mass of the ellipsoid, or was it the other way around? Kormendy points out that the stellar velocity depends not just on the mass of a galactic ellipsoid but also on its size: The smaller the ellipsoid the faster its stars move. This extra effect, he argues, is what makes the velocity correlation so much better than the brightness correlation. To have an extra-heavy black hole, a galaxy or bulge must, in addition to being massive, also be unusually small and dense.”

The correlation from the quote above can be explained relative to #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory forming aEther. The drag of the inward part of this spiral gives its aspect of the gravitational force that accelerates the atoms of the stars in the vicinity of the black hole of gigantic size along these aligned parts of these spirals into what appears to be this black hole. This extremely dense aEther and gravity creates an environment that can tear stars and possibly even molecules apart. Only 0.15 percent of the elliptical galaxies or bulges of flatter galaxies are involved in black holes at any instant. My question, is it possible mass being pulled into a black hole by the inward spiraling aEnergy that manifests itself as gravity at greater than the speed of light around the spiral space-time curve accelerates this mass to a speed greater than the speed of light transforming it into energy by E = Mc^2 equation so as to travel with the aEnergy which eventually all slows down and enters the nucleus of existing or new atoms or escapes the black hole by Hawking’s, “slow bleeding radiation”, shrinking the hole. In my research I am integrating information that has been differentiated by others in the above quotes analyzing all the information of these papers by JLD Analogies Spiral String aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory. I will also do this in the following quote continued. “In other words, the mass of the hole is determined by whatever fixes the size of the bulge. The size is thought to be set during bulge formation; once gas has condensed into stars, the size is locked in forever. So it seems that neither the hole or the bulge came first; they developed together, limited by the amount of available material and by the gravity of the dark matter that ultimately calls the shots in this universe. The new correlation thus supports theories that quasars are black holes and bulges in the throws of growth. Such episodes, though not always so intense, may be the natural part of the life cycle of most galaxies, triggered by interactions or mergers with other galaxies, the quasar phase overlaps with the appearance of the first stars in the bulge. Some galaxies then acquire a flattened disk such as the one the sun lives in. Other galaxies begin as a disk and later develop a bulge with a black hole.

Richstone, however, worries that this scenario may contradict the available historical evidence, which suggests a gap in time between the onset of quasar activity and that of star formation. Kormendy disagrees but admits that the scenario is still sketchy. Nobody quite knows what created the “seed” hole that then grew to massive proportions, how material steered itself into the hole or why the beast

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decided to stop eating. “The art of doing science is to try to get the right answer within perfect data,” he says.”

“The dark matter that ultimately calls the shots in the universe”. #1 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory defines “the gravity of the dark matter” and the fact the dark matter is matter outside of the hole in the galaxy mainly but even matter in other galaxies in accumulations of infinitely very weak force via The #l JLD Analogy of each atom in the universe that makes up aEther by its spiral string aEnergy Theory of Everything included in Unified Field Theory. This also explains the “correlation thus supports theories that quasars are black holes and bulges in the throws of growth”. #1 JLD Analogy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory does a good job with spiral string aEnergy composing aEther in taking the path of least resistance explaining what “created the “seed” hole that then grew to massive proportions, how material steered itself into the hole” “”this is the art of doing science is to try to get the right answer within perfect data”". Continue the quote of – “The Hole Shebang” – last paragraph.

“To improve the data, Hubbel is testing the correlation between black holes and bulges at its weakest points–namely, the heaviest and lightest galaxies. Meanwhile, the Chandra X-ray satellite is probing black holes in galaxies near and far, and ground-based instruments continue to inspect the black hole at the heart of the Milky Way. Over the coming decade new satellites – the Infrared Telescope Facility and the Next Generation Space Telescope– will scrutinize the very earliest galaxies. By then, black holes may have lost their reputation as quintessentially bizarre objects. They are already beginning to seem rather mundane. –George Musser”

Starting with the last sentence of the above quote first. My JLD Analogy finds that black holes are most revealing that our universe is steady state where here in high density aEther this Analogy is the micro-component of Einstein’s description of gravity in a much more real unified field concept where the inward part of JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy taking the path of least resistance and pico ^ pico magnitude of these atom’s effect of all the mass of the galaxy exert their gravitational weak forces in an infinitely concentrated way around the area of the gigantic hole so as to pull matter of the galaxy into the hole with gravity so powerful in the density of the #1 JLD Analogies of spiral’s string’s of aEnergy making up the extremely high density of aEther in the black hole’s volume that it pulls the matter apart and accelerates the mass in a speed greater than the speed of light transforming the ingested mass into energies so that it travels in the direction that the mass is being accelerated so as to join the aEnergy to its source the end of #1 JLD Analogies individual existing atom’s nucleus or newly created atom’s nuclei. The newly created atoms near the black hole could be part of the quasar associated with the black hole or the end of the aEnergy string spirals could be at any part of the galaxies mass atomic nucluii. Now back to Discover, October 1993, page 106. “”it would be a very basic blow to the whole philosophy of science between the future and the past”"

In 1993 some physicists thought that black holes imploded to remnants which is similar but different than the above. If my analogies are not correct then there would be an end product of remnants of infinite number. Continue quote of Discover page 106 top:

“These sub microscopic remnants, too, could pop out of the vacuum. The trouble with an infinite

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number of types of remnants, say remnant critics, is that the probability that they will materialize out of the vacuum also becomes infinite. They would appear everywhere, all the time. “Basically the universe as we know it would never have come into existence,” say Strominger, explaining the reasoning of his critics. Instead of creating mostly ordinary elementary particles at early stages of the universe, the universe would have created mostly remnants.”

In response to these objections, Strominger and others, including Rutger’s physicist Tom Banks, who worked with Susskind in critiquing Hawkings’ attempt to modify quantum mechanics, wrote a second paper, with a more detailed description of remnants, which appeared this past May. Remnants, the paper argues, are in a sense very much like protons, neutrons, and other familiar particles–simple, nondescript objects, remnants all have the same irreducible mass and size, weighing in at about a hundred-thousandth of a gram (an enormous mass for something smaller than an atom). Seen in this light, remnants are no more likely to swarm out of a void than any other particle in the subatomic vestiary. Remnants are so massive, the paper goes on to say, that they would, like the miniature black holes they are, distort space-time. So the researchers have renamed their remnants, calling them cornucopions to suggest the infinitgely long, horn-like shape they believe remnants would have. “They are like a drain in a sink,” says Strominger. “From the outside, the boundary of the drain is just a small circle. But if you look at the volume inside, you’ve got a lot of room.” Trapped within the unlimited volume of the horn would be all the information about whatever fell into the original black hole.”

My analogies and theories use one basic symbol of information that integrates and unifies. Therefore, there is no information loss whereas the physicists are dealing with our information explosion and are dissecting all of this information into an infinite number of symbols and frustrated about losing this information in the remnants of black holes. I only quoted parts of Discover October 1993 pages 93 thru 106 article Ultimate Vanishing. I quoted all of Scientific American October 2000 because I agree with 99% of this George Musser article in this The Hole Shebang pages 18 + 20. Now research Instant Physics by Tony Rothman, Ph.D. page 24.

“Kepler’s Three Laws Of Planetary Motion

l. The planets travel in Ellipses with the sun at one focus. Kepler’s Law #1 All planets orbit the sun in an ellipse, having the sun at one focus.

2. A planet in orbit about the sun sweeps out equal area times. Kepler Law #2 The equal area law says that a planet in orbit around the sun sweeps out equal area in equal times. The planet moves faster near the sun, and so in an given time it travels a greater distance than when it is far from the sun. But near or far the areas swept out in that time are the same.”

From both masses the sun and the planet, all the #1 JLD Analogies at same space-time intersecting each other on the inward part of their spirals’ strings’ aEnergy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory composing gravity through the aEther with their drag against the outward parts of these same spirals of every atom in both masses. Looking at this aEther of aEnergies spirals’ strings’ space-time a Planera slice through the center of these two masses have an integrated area of this delineated plane contained in its elliptical path of the spiral’s mass around the larger mass so that this area is equal to any other integrated area of any other space-time of the same length in time around this elliptical path. This path delineated also is affected by all masses in the universe inversely times the square of their distance

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in respect to the relative motion being observed.

My analogies & theories will develop an integration of Isaac Newton who didn’t take into his equations space-time. Kepler, in 1906, Kepler Law’s and Albert Einstein, 3 giants that I can now stand on their shoulders and see that this is possible with #1 JLD Analogy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory.

Why a planet around a star or an electron around the proton and possible neutron in the nucleus of an atom takes an elliptical path rather than a circle even though the paths in some cases are very near circular? This is because of the other #1 JLD Analogies and/or #4 JLD Analogies in the volumetric area of the two or more masses being observed. The true four dimensional path of the mass that is moving relative to others in space-time is elliptical.

Kepler’s Three Laws continued:

” The square of the product of a planets orbit is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun. Kepler’s Law #3 on the vertical” Log Scale “axis is shown the cube of the nine planets” including the asteroid Ceres ” average distance from the sun. On the horizontal axis is shown the square of all the planet’s periods. When one is plotted.” using the Log Scale on the Y axis so that the Space-Time curve that the cube of the planets distances including the asteroid Ceres points that form coordinates with the square of the times (periods) “against the other” a nearly “straight line results showing that the two quantities are proportional to each other.” See graph on page 44.

(Distance from the sun)^3 for a planet in our solar system represents the three physical dimensions of the four within that volume. (The period of the revolution of this volume is space-time) ^ 2 represents the motion through space proportional to the area of the circumscribed plane in terms of earth years for different planets.

What is the logic of the correlation of these ingredients of space-time in relativity of motion? Let’s look at the functionality of the components in Einstein’s formula E = mc ^2 in comparing E with gravity in the case we are studying, m the mass of the planet-sun interaction and c ^ 2 (the speed of light squared) in the case we are studying, the development of #1 JLD Analogy Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory aEnergy strings in aEther. Let E be proportional to gravity as mc^2 is proportional to period of elliptical space-time curve in four dimensions which we are studying here in two dimensions the graphs on page 44 and page 47. The graph on page 47 is a ternary graph which I used in inventing glass bonding in Transducer Engineering for Honeywell see my notebook July 2, 1974 —- July 29, 1974 Jack L. Doan 1974 #4 notebook on the back of page 49 “Low-Melting Inorganic Glasses with High Melt Fluidities Below 400 degrees C.” by S. S. Flaschen, A. David Pearson, and William R. Northover

The graph that follows on page 44 is similar to Instant Physics From Aristotle To Einstein And Beyond by Tony Rothman, PH.D. page 24 Kepler’s Law #3

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2nd image After 3rd Part My Blog
October 14, 2007


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Continue #16 JLD analo, from Page 22 1 Turn Beyond Electron Spherical Shell Nucleus at Center of a Hydrogen Atom this 4 dimensionl diagram could repersent.

The next point of Discovery Disclosure is that the Jack L. Doan Analogy Spiral String Energy is that the Energy is moving along this space-time curve of the spiral at approximately 9(10^16)Meters/Second. The value of C^2 in Einstein’s E = MC^2 not E but C^2 so the spiral string energy is moving along the spiral space time spiral path at the speed of C^2 and the next subject is the nodes that are formed in the space time spherical shells formed relative to electrical magnetic waves and/or photons source atoms. Where the inward part of the Jack L. Doan Analogy Spiral String Energy crosses in the neighborhood of the outward part of this spiral is where the Nodes are supporting the passage of waves that are traveling in space time nearly straight space curves at the speed of light C, 3 (10^8) meters / second.

In matter that contains the mass of this space of this source of electromagnetic waves saying the case being discussed the atom and/or atoms that produced the photon and/or photons as a source there are millions of Nodes in the aEther formed by the Jack L. Doan’s #4 Analogy spiral string energies at C^2 speed so that traveling in a nearly straight line space time curve from point source atom and/or atoms traveling passing by these Nodes at the velocity of light. This is how , in this case, there are wave-particle phenomenons at the velocity of light C. In the case of photons and the wave-particle passing through of a transparent atomic structure of glass the Nodes of the aEther are relative to the Nodes of the atoms Jack L. Doan’s #l Analogy of the atoms of the glass and the speed of the wave-particles is set by the index of refraction of this medium. If the photons and their Jack L. Doan’s #4 Analogy spiral string energy traveling relative to other photons from the same source through different thicknesses of this media have their velocities adjusted accordingly so as to conform to the optics of this case. When the wave-particle emerges the velocity C of outer space aEther in this case relative to the nearly straight path by the space time Nodes. These Nodes are also influenced by the gravity part of Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy spiral string energy the inward part of these millions of spirals in this space-time neighborhood and also the similar attraction of Jack L. Doan’s #4 Analogy spiral string energy which there is a change in the density of gravity field of Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy spiral string energy inward part of spirals so as to exert a force by Jack L. Doan’s Unified Field Theory so as to change the velocity in direction toward the center of this density increase.. My theories are different than Einstein’s in definition but end results are similar.

The photon particle in what is assumed to be a stable physical universe has mass that can transmit force on the surface of matter composed of atoms @ valance electron shell level. The photon because of it’s JLD’s #4 Analo.spiral string energy also is wave like. The force that JLD #1 Analo.is a weak force (present day scientific term) a magnitude less than the force of a photon is in its extremity outside of the valance electron shell of the mass of an atom but can be exerted as gravity in the first field of JLD’s mini-fields Unified Fields Theory. The second field is the magnetic field that also can exert a force by JLD’s on matter mass electron shell level as a static magnetic field or as electromagnetic field resulting from electrons flowing through conducting atoms mass so that the JLD #lAnalo.of atomic spiral string energy and JLD ‘s #2 analo. of electron spiral string energy which is both of these cases energy going from higher to lower density in the case of the long conductor the spirals flatten from spiral spherical 4 dimensional shape in the immediate neighborhood of the conductor and similarly into torus shape in the immediate neighborhood of bar magnet.

Third field is that of momentum of mass at a continuous velocity which JLD #1 Analo.spiral string energy creates this force and similarly in the acceleration of mass JLD #1 Analo.

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The spiral string of energy that has its energy decreased is proportionally to Ar^2 of the spiral and all of these unified fields of the respective JLD Analo.

The inertia of mass of acceleration is like the momentum of mass moving or at rest in that the JLD #1 Analo.has to have the energies mentioned in its string spirals motion changed by the aEther drag to increase or decrease by the interface of moving masses relative to a different motion of other matters mass motion. The similarity of present scientific equations and aEther drag constant and the force of gravity magnetism and the electrical strikes compared to the weak force of gravity and the photon will be compared and studied in developing these analogies and theories, postulates and hypotheses.

The JLD #2 Analo. energy excess flows through the conductors mass flattening the four dimensional spiral to nearly a two dimensional plus time dimension spiral causing the JLD#1 Analo.to also realign so as on the inward part of that spiral to attract the outward part of the spiral of #2 Analo.to attract each other. These spirals once reorientated in the mass #1 JLD Analo.on some matter masses will stay orientated in this configuration even after the excess JLD #2 is not moving in the neighborhood.

8-8-2000

Bought another book “The Relativity Explosion” by Martin Gardner, a completely revised updated edition of relativity for the million published by Vintage v104 1976 original start was in 1962. I also bought another book, “The Universe and Dr. Einstein” by Lincoln Barnett published by Time, Inc. I glanced at chapter 7 and read chapter 8 of The Relativity Explosion book. Chapter 8 is thoughts that form a good background for JLD #1 Analo.and the reason in the chapters end to compare with JLD #2 Analo. I read chapter 5 of The Universe and Dr. Einstein. The thoughts in this chapter is like those that gave me the concept of my analogies, especially JLD #1 Analo.and my concept of ether, my theory of everything including my Unified Field Theory.

In my experience I have spent days of time, not all in one stretch, but many times 24 hours looking through the telescope t of Michelson-Morley Interferometer on page 33 in this chapter 5. I understand why they didn’t detect the Ether of their concept. The Ether formed by my JLD #1 Analo.(Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String Energy) explains why they couldn’t detect their concept and why I can my concept.

Read up through Chapter 3 “The Universe and Dr. Einstein” and it agrees with my analogies. Read Chapter 4 and it points out where my analogies go beyond. Read Chapter 6 to start with Einstein didn’t have to reject the entire concept of the Ether theory, just the “whole idea of space as a field system or framework.” I wrote in the margin of this book at the start of Chapter 6, page 35 “Michelson-Morley experiment was that the velocity of light is unaffected by the motion of the earth.”

I wrote in the area of the experiment – this is not necessarily true for the solar system moving in the milky way galaxy or the this galaxy moving amongst other galaxies that are not traveling in the same relative motion . And now reading the end of Chapter 6 I see that in my analogies, theory of everything including my Unified Field Theories the Lorentz Transformation in respect to JLD #1 Analo.& #4 must be studied and compared to the math logic of how my explanation of how the throwing out Ether consideration and the necessity of Lorentz Transformation in order to explain the

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phenomenon and how my analogies, theory of everything including Unified Field Theory of gravity and photon wave particles explanation explains how the Lorentz math works in relation to my analogies and theories.

X’ = (x-vt) / (1-(v^2 / t^2)) ^-2 Y’ = Y Z’ = Z t’ = (t-vt) / (1-(t^2 / c^2)) ^-2

Read Chapter 7, more of the same like the formulas above for me to reconcile. Reading Chapter 8,

M = mo / (1-v^2 / c^2) ^-2 Needs to be studied

The terms I have used in my analogies, thanks to Dr. Einstein, E = Mc^2 I also, before reading Chapter 7, used the terms M = E / c^2 like on page 53 of “The universe And Dr. Einstein”.

Read Chapter 9 next. It describes four dimensional space – time continuum which I need to reconcile with my Analogies, theory of everything including my Unified Field Theory.

Read Chapter 10 that introduces general theory of relativity. My concept of inertia, which started all my analogies of science, hasn’t been discussed yet in my JLD Analo. The JLD #1 Analogy Spiral String Energy gives mass inertia in the acceleration of aEnergy in the energy string path as the mass sets up motion, because of forces exerted on JLD #1 Analo.and it’s reaction to all the other JLD#1 Analo.in an nearly infinite numbers too large to be computed which by their gravity attractions as a different function of the spiral string aEnergy paths. How aEnergy have the equally mass equality of mass resistance to this acceleration or de-acceleration.

Read Chapter 11, The Laws of Gravity that Einstein formulated behave as a field similar to my concept of aEther in my #1 Analogy and #4 JLD Analo.

Read Chapter 12. The effects of gravity are discussed. My analogy explains the bending of light now the effect of gravity on the emission of photons wave light spectrum shift is to be studied.

Read Chapter 13 and the starting point describing the analogy JLD #1 through JLD #15 Analo., theory of everything including Unified Field Theory. The author, Lincoln Barnett, page 86 “space, though finite, is unbounded; a mathematician would describe its geometrical character as the four-dimensional analogue of the surface of a sphere.” One (1-^-30) gram / cm^3 density of matter in this analogue with a 2.1 (10^23) mile radius a distance it takes light to travel in 35 billion light years. “A sunbeam starting out through space at the rate of 186,000 miles a second would, in this universe, describe a great cosmic circle and return to its source after a little more than 200 billion terrestrial years.” At the end of Chapter 13 on page 87 of “The Universe and Dr. Einstein.”

Read Chapter 14. This discussion that goes beyond Einstein into the concept of but not characterized literally by the author into the Big Bang and the decaying or possibly pulsating universe. In my analogies #1 through #15 & my theory of everything including my Unified Field Theory, the initial start was in my concept like in all my analogies the overall shape of the universe is a four-dimensional spiral.

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Read the final chapter, Chapter 15, where the emphasis on the unified field theory the author, Lincoln Barnett, “the analogy is not quite exact, however, for if we conceive of the universe as a kind of spotted balloon”

My analogies, JLD#1 through #15, my theory of everything including Unified Field Theory will possibly fulfill some of the sought after explanation that this book in Chapter 15 eludes to.

08-10-00

Next the appendix of “The Universe and Dr. Einstein”, page 110 “The exposition of the principle of the increase of inertial mass on pages 51-53 follows a quickly comprehended pattern analogous to those employed by many college physics texts.” In another quote 2 paragraphs down “In accordance with the theory of relativity the kinetic energy of a material point of mass m is no longer given by the well-known expression M(v^2) / 2 But by the expression (Mc^2) / (1-(v^2) / (c^2)) ^-2

“By means of a comparative simple considerations we are led to draw the following conclusion: A body moving with the velocity v, which absorbs an amount of energy E0 in the form of radiation without suffering an alteration in velocity in th process, has, as a consequence, its energy increased by an amount E0 / (1 – (v^2) / c^2) ^-2

“Thus the body has the same energy as a body of mass (m + E0 / c^2) moving with the velocity v. Hence we can say: If a body takes up an amount of energy E0, then its inertial mass increases by an amount E0 / c^2; the inertial mass of a body is not a constant,but varies according to the change in the energy of the body. He inertial mass of a system of bodies can even be regarded as a measure of its energy. The law of the conservation of the mass of a system becomes identical with the law of conservation of energy….” “

In another book reading chapter 5 of the “Relativity Explosion” page 77 “The General Theory of Relativity” the quote “gravity and inertia are two different words for exactly the same thing.”

In my Jack L. Doan Analogy Spiral String aEnergy theory & my theory of everything including Unified Field Theory JLD #1 Analo.is the same for gravity and inertia. Just two different aspects of this Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy spiral string aEnergy. The quote above is the same almost as on page 84 of Chapter 5.

This string of aEnergy that moves along the outward part of Jack L. Doan Analogy from higher density to lower density spiraling via. Coriolis force clockwise in the north side of the matter making up mass until outside valance electrons shell level looking outward at a speed greater than the speed of light can be accelerated and made to move at even greater speed in its gravity and/or inertia functions as the inward part of the other JLD #1 Analo.’s come through the same micro-macro neighborhoods on these inward part of aEnergy strings on their way to their respective sources to go to the even lower density void at the atom center of their nuclear neutrons where the void was created by the outward spiraling energy string. Conversely, the higher than the speed of light Jack L. Doan #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy is de-accelerated by the greater than the speed of light as the intensity of the inward part of JLD #1 Analo.’s as their demand to fill the void is lessened or the void becomes smaller. Both gravity and inertia functions are involved. Infrared electromagnetic radiation from the Jack L. Doan analogies

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in the transmission of heat energy on a straighter space/time curve at the speed of light to move this energy from higher density to lower density and also photons JLD #4 Analo.’s in this same manner with their aEnergy spirals carrying quantum’s of energy in their moving spirals that are also wave-like. The temperature of JLD #1 Analo.’s decrease to -270 degrees c and degrees kelvin where the neutron is stable.

08-11-00
Read the “Relativity Explosion Book” Chapter 6, “Gravity and Space-time”. Reading Chapter 6 of this book I see Einstein from his mathematical perspective with the popular explanation of his gravity theory. Quote on page 102 “A grapefruit placed on this sheet (rubber) will make a depression. A marble placed near the grapefruit will roll toward it. The grapefruit is not “pulling the marble”.”

So that a marble would roll toward it as it was by its inertia trying to follow as straight a line possible can also be better explained by my JLD #1 Analo.’s of many atoms in the mass making up the mass of the grapefruit forming a density of inward part of these (impossible to number) JLD Analo.’s taking a path of least resistance for the marbles JLD #1 Analo.’s to move in that same direction towards the grapefruit as the inertia of the marble JLD #1 Analo.’s trended to keep the marble moving in a straight line. This analogue satisfied Einstein’s concept as quoted on page 102 “The Relativity Explosion”, Chapter 5, Gravity and Space-time: (a grapefruit placed on this sheet will make a depression. A marble placed near the grapefruit will roll toward it. The grapefruit it not pulling the marble.”

Page 106 of Chapter 5 The Relativity Explosion quote:

” Although relativity theory replaces gravity by a geometrical warping of space-time, it leaves many basic questions unanswered Does this warping take place instantaneously through space or does it propagate like a wave motion.”

At this time in my development of Jack L. Doan’s Analogies, Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory, I say the answer to the above question is neither instantaneously or as a wave at the speed of light , but at a speed greater than the speed of light.

The Jack L. Doan #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy moves through its space-time spiral path at a speed greater than the speed of light but another question is the electro magnet radiation at the speed of light follows a straighter space time curve along the radius of the source of the spiral’s atom. This shorter distance in 4 dimensions than the 4 dimensional space-time distance along the spiral where the aEnergy String is moving relative to say a photon so in its inertial – gravity function is the String aEnergy accelerated to a speed greater than the already than the speed of light squared (c^2) speed the aEnergy is at.

” Almost all physicist agree that the warping moves like a wave and the waves travel with the speed of light. There is also good reason to believe that gravity waves consist of tiny indivisible particles of energy called “gravitons.” “

In my JLD #1 Analo.’s the Spiral String aEnergies are these tiny particles energy that could be called “gravitons” but they are not standard electro – magnetic radiated waves. My Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory will deal with this in later computations. Also see the end of Chapter 5 page 107 at the end.

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” Einstein and others have tried to develop a “unified field theory”that will unite gravity and electromagnetism in one set of mathematical equations. The results have been disappointing. Perhaps some young reader of these words, if he has the creative genius of an Einstein, will someday see how to formulate such a theory.”

If such a reader man, woman, girl or boy as above should read my Analogies and developing theories and would like to discuss them with me in that persons math formulations I would greatly appreciate this.

The Relativity Explosion chapter 7 Test of General Relativity

The test in this chapter will be studied and compared with My Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy and #4 Analogy and other electromagnetic radiation with my Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory.

Chapter 8 Mach’s Principal page 121

” From Mach’s point of view, a cosmos without stars would have no space-time structure relative to which the earth could spin. For there to be gravitational (or inertial) fields capable of bulging a planets equator and spilling water over the sides of a rotating bucket, there must be stars to create a space-time structure. Without such a structure, space-time would possess no geodesics.”

My (Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy & Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory) agrees with Mach’s point of view in the above quote. Each atom in the universes matter has a JLD #1 Analo. At least one spiral string of aEnergy that though it gets to an infinitely, out at the stars in far away galaxies, they are infinitely (too large to compute) number of them so that their weaker than (weak force) accumulation would be a significant force where you applied it back at the mass of the infinitely small piece of matter that this gravity-inertia function is being applied to in conversely all the JLD #1 Analo.’s weaker than (weak force) in this aEther space-time geodesics structure.

I believe Einstein’s theories of relativity are a great mathematical representative theory of space-time tenors that even a non-mathematical proficient person like myself can understand but the real substance this math is dealing with is like Mach’s point of view in the quote above and like my statement after it about my J. L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String Energy.

Here I quote from the paragraph before the above quote of Mach’s point of view. “Mach anticipated much of relativity theory, and Einstein has written about the extent to which Mach inspired his early thinking. (Sad to relate, Mach in his old age, after his insights had been incorporated by Einstein into a successful theory, refused to accept relativity.)”

All of us stand on the shoulders of giants. Einstein was supported like that by Mach. I am supported like that by Einstein and Mach.

Einstein tried to use Mach’s principle in his mathematical description of his model of this in 1917. Page 123 “There can be no inertia relative to ‘space,’ but only an inertia of masses relative to one

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another. If, therefore, I have a mass at a sufficient distance from all other masses in the universe, its inertia must fall to zero.”

As I stated above, my Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy would at an infinite space-time curve distance let inertia only approach zero. Maybe that is why Einstein’s math theory of Mach’s Principle where as stated above. My concept of Aether is as follows : At the center of J_wave is a string of Aether which as Disclosed here permeates' the universe along with an infinite number of others of the same Aether strings. THE STRING OF AETHER IS FORMED IN THE NUCLAS OF EVERY ATOM OF MATTER AND DARK MATTER SIMILAR ELEMENTARY UNIT. The J_wave creates and is part of the cosmic Aether string out from all the atoms' nucleus as far as the mass of the J_waves into the atomic orbits except in the electromagnetic radiation of light and other mass bearing radiation including neutrinos, which extend to the edge of the universe. Gravity momentum and inertia are reactions to the components associated with Aether as are the 4 forces including the strong force that binds electrons and protons to their neutrons. This is the basis of my therry of everything disclosed by Jack L. Doan November 7, 2011. “later, serious flaws were discovered in Einstein’s cosmic model and he was forced to abandon Mach’s Principle, but the principle continues to exert a strong fascination over today’s cosmologists. It is not difficult to see why. It carries the relativity of motion to its ultimate. The opposing point of view, the view that assumes a space-time metric even in the absence of stars, is really very close to the old ether theory. Instead of a motionless, invisible jelly called the ether, there is a motionless invisible space-time structure.”

I don't know if my Aether could be thought of as invisible jelly but it is invisible though it is attached to the emitter of light and capture of Northern Lights. ​
The above quote has all the ingredients of Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy in that the mathematical flaws which I don’t fully understand led Einstein from Mach’s Principle. The aEther I conceived is different from old ether in that mine is not relatively stationary but moving throughout the universe only tied to the atom of its source. They all then fit either Einstein’s theory of relativity to a large extent and/or Mach’s Principle.

Next paragraph page 123 “Dennis Sciama, a British cosmologist, has developed an ingenious theory along Machian lines. He gives an entertaining account of it in his popularly written book The Unity of the Universe. According to Sciama, inertial effects due to rotation or acceleration are the result of a relative motion with respect to the total matter in the universe. If this is true, then a measurement of inertia provides a method for estimating the amount of matter in the universe! Sciama’s equations show that the influence of nearby stars on inertia is astonishingly small. All the stars in our galaxy, he believes, contribute only about one ten-millionth of the strength of inertia on the earth. Most of its strength is contributed by distant galaxies Sciama estimates that 80 percent of inertial force is the result of motion relative to galaxies so distant that they have not yet been discovered by our telescopes!”

I have not read “The Unity of the Universe”. And I don’t know the ingredients of Sciama’s math. Maybe our telescopes today can see a few more of the galaxies that make up the 80 percent he refers to in his quote above. He is on the right track in the quotes ingredients relative to Jack L. Doan’s #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy & Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory except I don’t know if his math will be anything like the math that will be developed in my analogies and theories. The end of chapter 8, the Mach’s Principle, fits what I am doing.

Read Chapter 9 continuing in “The Relativity Explosion” about the twin paradox. I have Bertland Russell’s book “The ABC’s of Relativity” of which I have read about one-half of. Chapter 9, “The Twin Paradox”, page 127 mentions in its first paragraph I will read more of it later. I have, 40 years ago, accepted the fact that time could be different in different inertial-gravity relative movements of clocks including atomic and biological.

Read Chapter 10, 11 & 12. The concept of black holes will be studied later, like on page 173, “They

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would compress him on all sides and pull him lengthwise in a fine filament that would approach zero thickness as he fell.” Page 184, chapter 12, “The remarkable thing about this microwave radiation is its “isotropy”- that is, its uniformity in all spatial directions.”

Could it be relative to the Jack L. Doan Analogies #1 thru #15or maybe #16 Spiral aEnergy theory of everything including Unified Field Theory. This JLD #16 analo.’s that the big bangers think was from then is really from none as spiral energy radiates yet another wave particle.

Made another spiral drawing on AutoCAD 11 of the very small dimensions which I haven’t been able to reconstruct yet. See below.

8-15-2000 @12:30 a.m.
Today I got more insight into JLD Analogies #1-#15 Spiral String aEnergy JLD Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory. The hydrogen, JLD #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy is the simplest to delineate with one spiral string of aEnergy coming out of the nucleus from neutrons starting point to proton then to the one electron shell where it is relative to this atomic #1 and the atoms low mass. This spiral string after this interface proceeds out beyond the outer radius at 10,000 times larger than the 10^-14 diameter for hydrogen. For gold there would be more spiral strings of aEnergy according to its atomic number and greater mass with 10^-14 meters radius and 10,000 times that for the larger radius for gold. The difference in the inertia of the light hydrogen atom in mass plus atomic number factor and gold that is much heavier proportionally. I will state my computation on this later.

If the extra dimensions like in Scientific American, August 2000, page 65 (that I could consider for JLD Unified Field Theory the 4th dimension time) quote “conversely, for a given number of extra dimensions we can compute how large they must be to make gravity strong near 10^-19 meters. If there is only one extra dimension, its radius must be roughly the distance between the earth and the sun. Therefore, this case is already excluded by observation.”

I don’t think it is excluded by observation in JLD #1 Analogy Spiral “superstring” aEnergy that would include the dimension of time that coincides with the three-dimensional spiral path that has a circle shell radius of approximately like a drawing below has 1.49637 E+07km radius. Therefore, the JLD Unified Field Theory “The ultimate unification of gravity with other forces would then take place near 10^-19 meters rather than 10^-35 meters as traditionally assumed.” Check TC atom spiral 001 hemisphere distance of sphere R=0.00012006731 millimeters. Check 1.206731 (10^-7) meters. 10^-19 meters is inside of R of sphere. Now considering delineation of 2 spirals of different sizes 2.3992 E + 08km with the radius of the sun sphere approximately 1.496371 E + 07 inside that spherical shell also 1.206731 (10^-7) m which has the 1 (10^-19) unifying shell level inside it. So these delineations of #1 JLD analogy spiral (superstring) aEnergy in the 4 dimensions including time coinciding is my simplified concept instead of Scientific American’s, bottom of page 65, delineation yellow circle small extra dimension in circumference of a tube and the upper right hand part, same page, delineation larger extra dimension of a sphere on a three dimensional sphere with description of gravity as the extra dimension in trying to come up with unification.”

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Now, with my old and new information I will go back over it from the start. To understand magnetism and electricity I first formed my first concept of magnetism. The concept of this field was that the energy and the outer shell of the atoms of the magnetized material created the fields lines of magnetic force. Likewise the field of the electrons flow through a conductor of electricity caused the outer shells of this conducting material’s atoms higher levels of energy to cause similar lines of force also magnetic to line up around these atoms in a clockwise direction around the axis of the flow away from one atom to the next. The Unified Field concept of inertia and gravity along with magnetism due to electron possibility of infinite cells around atoms. The integrated concept of electron integer make up not withstanding.

Next, about 48 years ago the concept of energy spirals developed and is still being developed starting years ago like I found today on page 77 (this notebook start 7/25/2000 Jack L. Doan’s Unified Field Theory & Analogies blue Pen-Tab 70) the Japanese concept of hydrogen (T-16). The ordinary hydrogen doesn’t have a neutron like page 80 (this notebook), just a proton spiral of matter around an energy core zone diameter of 1*10^-16 cm dia. The mass of the proton is 1,840 * the mass of an electron. The charge of electron – is the same in absolute value as the proton plus to be stable the proton of hydrogen doesn’t create a neutron because it isn’t needed to neutralize a second proton in the nucleus area. The aEnergy spirals out from the core through the proton and to the electron in their shells, only one for hydrogen and on into the outer shells in the spiral strings like on page 64 of this notebook. These strings in the outer shells of this atom them return in this spiral path of least resistance return to restore the core on the inward spiral with energy to replace the outward spiral aEnergy.

08-25-00

The aEnergy that comes into the core of an atom like hydrogen page 77 (this notebook) like in the initial Big Bang is energy of high density without form until it in taking the path of least resistance spirals out through the positron layer to the meson layer and if ordinary hydrogen with no neutron can in its clockwise spiral in the northern hemisphere of this matter to take the path of least resistance at the outer boundary of this nucleus spiral out to the electron shell layer where it stays in an energy quantum layer and electron cloud as a short string of aEnergy until the shell level of this inner #1 shell is so dense that it goes to a greater integral level or shell or spirals outward and takes the path of least resistance through outward radial shells as the string spins along its spiral analogies to connect to the proceeding spiral string analogist to the spinning of fibers of cotton on a spinning wheel to form the string of aEnergy that proceeds outward in finding its path of least resistance accelerated by the condition of the string until it reaches its outward limit of the universe where it is no longer part of aEnergy string and tends to re-string inward part of the spiral. The aEnergy may not have a smooth trip in taking the path of least resistance above. On the way in taking the path of least resistance the aEnergy string could go into quark particles configurations up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top (see page 72 and 77 of this notebook) coming out of 5th layer the core into the 4th layer where spiraling starts. Through the 3rd layer of the proton the mass layer spiraling out through spherical meson area the last area on the strings of aEther becoming involved in quark configuration the meson is combination of two quarks and an apion. The atoms other than ordinary hydrogen and neutron that is

34

made up of a proton and an electron which a neutron decays into. The proton is made up of 2 up-quarks and 2 down-quarks. There are many combinations of quarks and sometimes anti-quarks in mesons’ bound atoms. The next group of configurations are the leptons (see page 72 of this notebook).

I made a new drawing on TurboCad v6 spiral drawing layer #16 JLD Analo a delineation of above is created.

08-30-2000

Jack L Doan’s #1 – #16 Analogies, Theory of Everything including Unified Field Theory the spiral string aEnergy’s quantum accumulation of inward part of spiral of aEnergy into atom nucleus proton and hydrogen regular and protons with neutrons and all other atoms integer nature of electron & higher level electron shells an integer proton release from these shells is due to the particles in the nucleus forming an integer quantities of aEnergy to replace quantities of aEnergy in integer groupings as the aEnergy moves to fill the lower energy due to the units left as aEnergy moves from high density to lower density and taking the path of least resistance.

09-01-2000

At this point the aEther of aEnergy spiraling out beyond the electron’s shell the red dot at the center of the spiral (page 101 of this notebook) that is around the small, very small, nucleus of this hydrogen atom. Go back into electron shell sphere, the small red dot in the center, and work on #17 JLD Analo of the mechanism of electron flow from one atom to another. The high density of electron energy cloud of charges in the electron shell of aEnergy and quantum’s required to balance the protons charge as electron aEnergy spirals from one atom to another #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy has a strong but less far reaching effect in aEther. aEther will be discounted except at the last of this paragraph as this JLD Analo is developed. The strong fields set up by the moving quantities of aEnergy called electron flow amperage. Similar to #l J. L. Doan Analogy Spiral String aEnergy and forming aEther by #16 J LD Analo the energy in moving from high density to lower density and the dense sphere shell of electron charges spiral clockwise in the direction of flow. Unlike the energy quantity that was required for #16 JLD Analo in #17 JLD Analo is a strong local area field perpendicular plane to the direction flow of electron energy. As the electron energy moves from one atom to another the electron energy flows as the density in the atoms electron energy shell becomes denser many millions of these planer spirals of the magnetic field are created by moving electron energy from these sources of aEnergy in this new form of magnetic fields that combine to form a larger local area volumetric field. Now aEther will no longer be discounted as this field spiral decreases in their magnetic strength by the inverse of distance squared until the aEnergy is absorbed into the aEther of #1 JLD Analog’s of the local volume atoms source in local matter in a very small amount but by the aEther from atom sources far away by a direct proportion to the distance squared from the local volume atoms where the magnetic aEnergy was created in this #17 JLD Analogy Spiral String aEnergy that is stronger in the local volume than #1 JLD Analo’s gravity field.

35

The #1 JLD Analo. unified field of gravity, inertia-momentum and other weak force effects of spiral string aEnergy now needs a correlation formula to the strong force #16 & #17 JLD Analo.’s Unified Field of Electron, Proton, Photon-radiation and other strong force formulas. The rotation about an axis in space time is the major non-random three dimensional movement in time that will be studied as the basic starting point of my Unified Field Theory Math. In our physical dimensions the rotation of an armature in a magnetic field produces an AC wave of electrons flowing in the conductor of this armature. Waves are the results of rotating motion of particles. The matter of our earth will be studied first then galaxies and atoms later. First look at the aEther generated by the earth. JLD #1 Analogy Spiral String aEnergy in the area of the earth’s matter where every atom of this matter is rotating about the centerline through the poles of the earth so that the strings aEnergy from atoms on the opposite side of this centerline axis have the strongest effect in the points close to the nucleus of these atoms generating this aEther. As this rotation causes the aEther from the opposite side of the axis drags across the JLD #l Analogy Spiral String aEnergy at the atoms electron shells these strings are skewed so as to produce the basic facets of the gravity – magnetic unified field theory being disclosed here.

But first, next year, February 9, 2001, a quote from The Arizona Republic Health/Science section.

“Unexpected result may advance physics Experiment shakes Standard Model theory Republic Wire Services New York — Physicist may have poked a hole in their theory of how the universe operates.

Researchers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island reported experiments Thursday that showed a subatomic particle deviating slightly from its expected behavior. That tiny discrepancy could provide support for exotic theories.

“If it holds up, it’s a very exciting finding that can change how we see the world, how we look at matter and how it interacts, “said physicist Bradley Keister of the National Science Foundation, one of the agency’s supporting the work.

Much of physics today is based on a theory called the Standard Model. The theory has been able to explain three of the four forces in the universe – the strong and weak forces, which hold an atom together, and the electromagnetic force – but not the fourth one, gravity.

“If you find an experiment that disagrees with it, then that’s fairly significant,” said James Miller a physicist at Boston University and a member of the team that conducted the Brookhaven research.

The experiment examined the behavior of muons, heavier relatives of electrons, as they floated in a powerful magnetic field. In a magnetic field, a muon modifies its spin, a subatomic property like the rotation of a toy top. 36a

Earlier experiments have found a spin modification fairly close to that predicted by the Standard Model. But the Brookhaven experiment was several times more precise than previous measurements. It concluded the actual change in the muons’ spin differed from predictions by just a few parts in a million.

That small discrepancy suggests something is lacking in the smaller model, though there is still a chance that further results could bring theory and experiment back into line.

The most likely explanation for the anomalous result is supersymmetry, a theory that goes beyond the standard model. In supersymmetry, every known particle has a much heavier counterpart paired with it. Unlike the Standard Model, the theory has a place for gravity and explains why the various particles have the masses that they do.”

#16 JLD analo. Continued from Page 24 #1 JLD analo. Spiral Red Starts here at Nucleus

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October 13, 2007


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October 12, 2007
Next the Energy in Jack L. Doan’s #1Analogy Spiral String Energy (here after in this part of my 23 Papers will be annotated JLD#1Analo. Is similar to that of Fresnel’s Drag in that the velocity of the string energy is accelerated along its spiral space curve path relative to the JLD#1Analo. In relation to other mass that isn’t moving relative to it. The finite thinness of the string and the force it takes to accelerate it is in the magnitude of the square-root of that of a photon on a similar quantum basses.

  aEnergyeSpiral

For JLD#1 through #15Analo.’s & Theory of Everything including JLD’s Unified Field Theory I now disclose postulates and hypothesis:

Postulate #1 Everything was not created for all time in the big bang a concept as it is presented by present day science.

Postulate #2 The Energy in JLD’s Analo.’ies were transformed into the physical universes mass in matter and different energies from some of the Energy in JLD’s Analo. Spiral string energy before the 4 dimensional spiral was formed in a high density energy expansion in space-time which in our physical world would appear to be a big bang. The centers of galaxies can start these JLD’s Analo. At the present time in those areas high density of energy that forms strings of energy in a spiral.

Basis of JLD’s theory of everything including JLD’s Unified Field Theory.

Hypothesis:

The extremely high density of energy before the areas at the center of mass like galaxies and after cause:

The energy to form string energy from moving from high density to less density away from the center of extremely high density source formed first before galaxies from this energy only and after large matters mass center like in galaxies from returning strings of this energy. As the strings are formed as it moves from the extremely high density of energy the strings form spirals of these strings of energy first in sub microscopic vortexes that become particles with mass light characteristics like JLD #2 Analo. Through JLD’s Analo’ies through #15 and then as these progress the JLD #1 Analo.’ies are formed in the progression from higher JLD #1 Analo. Densities to lower densities of the same with the strings of energy continuously accelerating and forming the spiral at the sub microscopic area initially in the extremely high energy density of strings so as to avoid running into other strings and as strings of the initial particles escape the particles vortex to form larger particles up to atomic size spirals as they progress to lower density JLD’s Analo. Inversely #15 through #1. First moving from #15 through #1 the density of the spiral energy strings increases but then the strings that the energy spiral takes get less dense until it is extremely small except for in the case of JLD #4 Analo. Of the photon particle which stays more constant.

E = MC^2 Comes from the mass

M = E/C^2 Comes from the energy

C^2 is the constant of ratio of JLD’s Analo.spiral string aEnergy that forms aEther plus. The photon JLD #4 Analo.spiral string energy moves inside the sphere of the spiral from the source atom made up of JLD’s Analo.#2, #3 and #5 through #15 in JLD #1 Analo.on the radius of this sphere at the velocity of light C.

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3rd part of Analogy to THEORY OF EVERYTHING
October 1, 2007
a) The light wave through this screen creates a one slit diffraction pattern on the oppiset wall.

b) The light wave through this screen creates a two-slit diffraction pattern on the opposite wall. c) Sending particle-like photons one at a time through two slits results in a two-slit pattern, after enough photons have fallen on the screen particle should only be able to go through one slit, but the two-slit pattern indicates that each photon has somehow gone through both slits, like an extended wave. d) This conclusion is confirmed if one or the other slit is shut at random before each photon passes. Then you get 2 one-slit patterns, not a two-slit pattern.This proves that in (c) each photon particle was nevertheless going through two slits.Jack L. Doan’s Unified Field Theorem #4Analogy Spiral String Energy – Photon Delineation Wave – Particle Duality E) Photon Jack L. Doan’s #4Analogy passing through two-slits see above delineated also in enlarged view is one of the billions of Jack L. Doan’s #1Analogy 4 dimensional spiral string energies shown partially not extending to infinity as they do with the one delineated near the sharp edge of a slit where it has a strong influence in bending the wave-particle of the photon’s Jack L. Doan’s #4Analology 4 Dimensional spiral energy string shown in 2 dimensions for simplicity and not to scale which deflects toward the mass close to the sharp edge only one shown in the enlarged view but billions of atoms #1Analogy on both sides of both slits are involved in this two-slit diffraction pattern on the photographic plate. The ether of which a very small part is delineated by the dotted spiral with the strong 4 dimensional matrix made up of the energy strings spiraling even outside of the present day scientific measurement of the atoms space radius influence on the photon #4Analogy spiral string energy also comes from the atoms of the photographic plate’s #1Analogy spiral string energy levels not delineated extended to the photon and beyond. The photon particles approach the slits mutually attracted to each other from their relatively point source in a wave (particle-wave) front so as to have the wave type of diffraction relative to the two-slit interface in the ether’s 4 dimensional matrix so that the wave front appears to split as they come relatively close to the sharp edge of the slits. Therefor they are recorded as particles on the photographic plate in the quantities indicated by the 2 dimensional piles shown for simplification. In the case of high velocity photons see the bottom of page 189 and top of page 190 of Instant Physics Diversity and Unity Quote ” High-energy gamma rays (photons) also strikes the atmosphere but for some reason are not referred to as cosmic rays. When one of these “primary” particles strikes an air molecule, its extraordinary energy can be converted by E = mc^2 into many “secondary” and even “tertiary” particles. Anderson’s position was one of these secondary particles. As we shall see , it is in Quantum Mechanics Page 181,“The wave-particle duality similar man-made collisions that many particles known today were discovered..” The 2 dimensional spiral shown below: the Fermat’s Spiral would be a better delineation in the respect of having a outward spiraling part and an inward spiraling part. The inward spiraling part of the Jack L. Doan’s #1Analogy spiral string energy path is the part that creates the gravity force in this field of ether from all the other Jack L. Doan’s analogy spiral string energy from all the other atoms in the universe in Jack L. Doan’s “Theory of Everything” Unified Field Theorem. Also in Jack L. Doan’s Analogies #2 through #15 there is the similar attractions between like analogies and in some non-similar analogies.Now though the Fermat’s Spiral is shown in 2 dimensions and is used for illustration the Jack L. Doan’s Analogies spiral string energy paths are 4 dimensional.

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​11-07-11 Print entire site.
11-13-11 From My #10 BLOG note book Page 5 Einstein's tying space to time in the "Fabric of the Universe" a PBS NOVA program.
 My concept is that J_Aether gives the theory that time varies in three dimensional space so a clock at each grid intersection in this envisioned space skews to stationary observers time relative to space traveling observer motion through it.
Jack l. Doan's Discloser of thoughts on Einstein's tying space to time:
My concept of Aether ( J_Ether ) gives My Theory of spherical trigonometry like thee dimensional (3D) space where a clock moving it slows to a different time at 3D curved line grid intersection points skews and shortens objects more the faster it goes very noticeable approaching the speed of light ( 671,000,000 miles per hour ).
    
  WHEN My four dimensional thought is reduced to two dimensional thought as follows: 
  JLD Analogy of a onion J_Universe if you peel off one infinitely thin shell of this onion and flatten it out you have a piece of a 2 dimensional J_2DUniverse. Now fit it to Einstein's description:
  First of gravity the warping out of this plane like a trampoline due to a heavy object more massive than its surroundings so that a lighter less massive objective would be pushed toward it by a gravity force vector perpendicular to this onion J_Universe shell:
__________________________________________________
This Mathematically makes things simple for J_2DUniverse conception of one piece of it. The gravity of 32 Ft per Sec Per Sec acceleration perpendicular to onion shell of the earth at the sea level of all its oceans.

From this you can see my problem with the math language (Algebra). I have a cumbersome time in using it.
This is because Mr. Sadler my 8th grade teacher at Addison New York High school Algebra class taught me to think of symbols as actual objects in my equations in solving problems. This has both been a blessing and a curse in my Algebra stile of thinking.
I will now try to use this backward type of thinking to the normal type mathematical language in reducing my concept of Cosmological J_Wave Strings in Dark matter and energy to two dimensions as well as regular matter and energy. Start with the fact that they all are related through gravity. 

In reducing J_Fabric of cosmological J_Ether J_Strings to a two dimensional J_Univers' shell I differ with Einstein's description of gravity. His description of warping of a rubber sheet being like gravity in his two dimensional description with the acceleration acting perpendicular to the trampoline. My two dimension description would be that the object would be warping the shell of J_Faberic like rubber bands in a spiral grid that pushes the object towards the gravities mass source atoms. J_Fabric shell with spiraling non static J_Strings that continue to move so as to push the object toward the mass of the highest density of atoms. This goes further toward explaining gravity's acceleration.
J_Dark-matter's basic units like atoms J_Waves create's the J_Ether J_String in the core of this tubular J_Waves' for every action there is a reaction phenomena. The difference between J_Dark J_Mass than light emitting atoms' J_Waves in conforming to the atoms orbits. Why the basic units of J_Dark matter uses J_Waves in their orbits so as to not emit electromagnetic frequencies that we can detect I will have to study. The gravity of a black hole is studied next.

The mass of imploding super nova star spirals towards its center which is the highest density of it. J_Gravity near it is at a very high so as to be contained in the hole formed so of its mass and energy, therefor (electromagnetic radiation except x-rays) so as to appear black. Mass in my definition of J_Mass in J_Waves and J_Ether J_String in its core due to the reaction to that of the J_Wave. This mass and J_Energy that propels it. The neutrino has very little mass and radiates strait out from it. These infinite number of spiraling in J_Waves with their J_Ether cores pushes all of these consistences toward the nucleus of each atom captured in this black whole. 

The scale of a J_System determines the unified definition of it. At the cosmological scale J_Ether scale is most prominent system giving gravity, inertia and momentum. The electromagnetic scale is the most prominent system giving all kinds of radiation including light and magnetic forces observed on human level. J_Strong and J_Weak forces are prominent systems at the microscopic scale that are observed on human scale if their balance is upset. 

2-04-12 Deleted some spaces.

4-06-12 Rachel at Intuit help made my text above wider thank you!
3-9-13 Save page in windows 7 .

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10-1-13 The following copied here to bottom of this page from website cosmicstringtheory.com to my jackdoan.com website. 

String (physics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

string is a hypothetical vibrating one-dimensional sub-atomic structure and one of the main objects of study in string theory, a branch of theoretical physics. There are different string theories, many of which are unified by M-theory. A string is an object with a one-dimensional spatial extent, unlike an elementary particle which is zero-dimensional, or point-like. Quarks and electrons are thought to be made of strings.

By postulating this one-dimensional structure, many desirable features of a more fundamental theory of physics automatically emerge. Most notably, almost any theory of strings consistent with quantum mechanics must also contain quantum gravity, which had not been described consistently prior to string theory.

The characteristic length scale of strings is thought to be on the order of the Planck length, the scale at which the effects of quantum gravity are believed to become significant:

 \ell_P =\sqrt{\frac{\hbar G}{c^3}} \cong 1.616 24 (12) \times 10^{-35} m

On much larger length scales, such as the scales visible in physics laboratories, such objects would be indistinguishable from zero-dimensional point particles. However, the vibrational modes and structure of the tiny string would be manifested as different elementary particles in the standard model of quantum field theory. For example, one state of the string would be associated with aphoton, and another state with a quark. This unifying feature of string theory is among its greatest strengths; however, no known solution of string theory exactly reproduces the particle content of the standard model.

Propagating in spacetime, strings sweep out a two-dimensional surface, called a worldsheet, analogous to the one-dimensional worldline traced out by a point particle.








 
10-21-15 I am back after being on Spacetime Blog Page to see if I can past a copy from my Email of my EarrthSky below:
 
 

 


EarthSky // Science Wire, SpaceRelease Date: Oct 20, 2015


A possible – not likely – alien megastructure

KIC 8462852 is an oddly dimming star – 1,500 light-years away. It might or might not be surrounded by vast megastructures in space, built by aliens.

 


 


 

An artist’s conception of a Dyson sphere, or megastructure. Image is public domain art by CapnHack, via energyphysics.wikispaces.com.


Did you see the stories late last week about the Kepler space telescope’s discovery of an oddly dimming star – some 1,500 light-years from Earth – hypothesized to harbor a potential, but far from definitely proven, alien megastructure? This week, according to Space.com, astronomers began using a radio telescope northeast of San Francisco – called the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) – to try to detect possible signals coming from the vicinity of this bizarre and now-controversial star, which is known to astronomers as KIC 8462852. Here’s a Q & A about this story, which has captured so much attention and is still unfolding. Follow the links below.

What is an alien megastructure?

When and how did the story break about KIC 8462852?

What has been found, exactly?

Could it be instrument error?

Why would astronomers link KIC 8462852 with alien civilizations?

What other explanations might there be?

What will astronomers do next?

What is an alien megastructure? If we, as a civilization, could collect all of our sun’s energy, we’d do it with some sort of megastructure, otherwise known as a Dyson sphere or a Dyson shell. See the infographic at the bottom of this post to learn more about them. It was only a month ago that a Dutch astronomer released a statement saying in no uncertain terms that – since sensitive new telescopes now permit astronomers to detect waste heat expected from an advanced alien civilization known as a Kardashev Type III civilization, which would collect all the energy of an entire galaxy, and since no such waste heat has been detected – advanced civilizations using megastructures are very rare or entirely absent from the local universe. Taken together, the current story about a possible alien megastructure around a single star, and September’s story about the absence of megastructures on a galactic scale, don’t really add up to anything … but do help illustrate the fact that no definite sign of alien life has been detected here.

When and how did the story break about KIC 8462852? Professional astronomers analyzing data from NASA’s Kepler space telescope (a famed planet-finding telescope), and citizen scientists from the Planet Hunters crowdsourcing program, have been studying this star. They noticed it from among the 150,000 stars stars examined by Kepler, and noted that it is “strange” and “bizarre.” Tabetha Boyajian, a postdoc at Yale who oversees Planet Hunters, submitted a paper about KIC 8462852 on September 11 to the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The paper passed mostly unnoticed until Ross Andersen published a story about it on October 13 at TheAtlantic.com. The story – titled The Most Mysterious Star in Our Galaxy – started a scramble among science media outlets to publicize the strange case of KIC 8462852.


 

The transit data for KIC 8462852. Notice the obvious dips in the light – what astronomers call ‘transit features’ – at D800 and D1500. Image via Boyajian et al.


What has been found, exactly? The Kepler telescope looks for planets by seeking tiny dips in the light of stars. Such dips are often caused by distant, unknown planets transiting – or passing in front of – their stars. But the signal from KIC 8462852 is strange. The dimming events observed from this star were very strong. It appears that anywhere from a fraction-of-a-percent to around 20 percent of the star’s light is sometimes blocked. The astronomers thus rule out a planet – even a huge planet – crossing in front of the star as the cause. The scale is just too large for that. Ross Andersen wrote at TheAtlantic.com:

The light pattern suggests there is a big mess of matter circling the star, in tight formation. That would be expected if the star were young …But this unusual star isn’t young. If it were young, it would be surrounded by dust that would give off extra infrared light. There doesn’t seem to be an excess of infrared light around this star.

It appears to be mature.

So the uproar over a possible megastructure surrounding KIC 8462852 stems from just a dip in the star’s light, observed by the Kepler telescope. It is a very intriguing dip.

Could it be instrument error? The astronomers now say no, it could not. Something strange is going on here.

Why would astronomers link KIC 8462852 with alien civilizations? Astronomers don’t like to assign exotic explanations for processes that nearly always turn out to be natural and ordinary. In the September 11 paper about the star, Boyajian and her colleagues explored some scenarios that might explain the pattern naturally, for example, an impact on a planetary scale, like the one that created our moon. They did not say “megastructure.”

But, later, another astronomer did say it. That astronomer was Jason Wright of Penn State University, who was quoted in the article at TheAtlantic.com as saying:

When [Boyajian] showed me the data, I was fascinated by how crazy it looked. Aliens should always be the very last hypothesis you consider, but this looked like something you would expect an alien civilization to build.

Wright said he will be publishing an alternative interpretation of the light pattern, suggesting that it is consistent with a “swarm of megastructures,” perhaps light collectors aimed at the star itself, designed to capture the energy of KIC 8462852. This is clearly something our own civilization can’t do yet, although I’ve heard people say we are only a few hundred years from taking the first steps toward it.


 

Image via Keck telescopes, via T. S. Boyajian et al. (2015), from http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.03622.pdf, via Forbes.


What other explanations might there be? Let me emphasize again that astronomers, as a rule, do not like to go out on a limb and rarely prefer exotic explanations over simple ones. And indeed there are explanations unconnected with alien civilizations that could work to explain KIC 8462852’s weird light pattern. The best story I saw about this was from Ethan Siegel, writing in Forbes on October 16. He wrote:

On the one hand, it could, of course, simply be aliens. But there are plenty of astrophysical explanations that could explain these light curves:

This could be a young star with a protoplanetary disk still around it, full of dust and debris, that blocks the light at intermittent levels depending on the orientation of the disk and the star relative to our line-of-sight.

There could be a series of giant planets with tremendous ‘ring’ structures that prevent a significant portion of the light from reaching our eyes when they pass across their star’s disk.

This could be a star that’s undergone a significant mass-ejection event, and when a dense portion of that gas passes between our eyes and the star, a significant fraction of the light gets blocked.

This could be an older, but violent solar system, where planets crash together and leave large amounts of debris around their star.

Or it could be a result of a large number of comet-like objects swarming around the star, blocking large amounts of light at regular and/or irregular intervals.

He went on to say that the last two explanations are the most likely, in part because the star does appear to have a wide, binary companion. Other stories about KIC 8462852 agree that the leading hypothesis at the moment involves a swarm of comets sent hurtling toward the star by another star. In any case, so far, KIC 8462852 lacks the characteristic infrared signatures you’d expect to see if these truly were signs of alien intelligence.

What will astronomers do next? They’ll do what they always do … think, talk to each other, perhaps re-analyze some of the existing data, and try to collect and analyze more data. As mentioned at the top of this post, they began this week to peer at KIC 8462852 with a small radio telescope, the Allen Telescope Array near San Francisco. If they find something interesting, they hope to follow up with the Very Large Array (VLA) near Socorro, New Mexico.

Will they get the answer then? Will they be able to say for sure that KIC 8462852 is emitting radio waves from an alien civilization’s network of radio stations, much like those found on Earth? Or perhaps even find an intentional signal?

Only time will tell. Stay tuned.

In the meantime, here’s more about Dyson spheres, or megastructures:

2-24-16 My blog pages are getting full and hard to past or add to and save. This page about that I last added to Oct. 20, 2015. The original contents was lost when Terry transferred my blog pages from Homestead originally Intuit hosting to His  Concrete5 hosting (Terrycarry.Org). I visit full site-map About instead of going to blog and selecting. I will paste what I copied From near the end of page J_Space-time about J_gravity waves:

 2-17-16 J_Fabric of the J_Universe J_Space-time inter woven by J_Strings J_Spiraling out from all J_Atoms. This expansion of J_Space-time of J_Dark-mater as well as normal J_Mater is like air so that J_Gravity-waves are similar to sound waves. I need to research the above #21 and #23. I inserted a couple sets of brackets around some of the areas I need to research and change for overall compatibility. 

 2-25-16 Removed the 2 sets of brackets abovementioned 2-17-16 after reviewing.

2-27-16  From near END of Space-time Page:Why did Einstein try to prove that gravitational waves can not exist?

Viktor Toth
 
Viktor Toth, IT pro, part-time physicist
Ah, the legendary case of Einstein's paper that was rejected by Physical Review!
 
 
2-28-16 My concept of why Einstein tried to prove that gravitational waves could not exist?
 
Einstein main language was mathematical and working with weak force in gravitational waves he didn't seen how they could be detected.

2-29-16 Symantecs is the differences between 2-27-16 Vicor Troth`s question Blue Above and My 2-28-16 Concept Above.
 
 3-1-16 Copied from Quora Digest:
Paul Mainwood
Paul Mainwood, Degrees in Physics and Philosophy, Doctorate in Philosophy of Physics
 
26.8k ViewsUpvoted by Richard Muller, Prof Physics, UCBerkeley, author of "Now-Physics of Time" (2016)
Paul is a Most Viewed Writer in Gravitational Waves.
 
 
Einstein deserves all the hype he gets.  But gravitational waves are an interesting instance where he screwed up, and let his high status bleed over into arrogance.  He was saved by a conscientious colleague.
Gravitational waves appear in the weak field approximation of general relativity, but early work had not determined whether they still existed in exact results.  Einstein himself did a lot of work on this, and in 1936, he tried to publish a paper in the Physical Review which he proved that gravitational waves could not exist.
He wrote to Max Born:
Together with a young collaborator, I arrived at the interesting result that gravitational waves do not exist, though they had been assumed a certainty to the first approximation. This shows that the non-linear general relativistic field equations can tell us more or, rather, limit us more than we have believed up to now.
He submitted the paper to the Physical Review with Rosen as a co-author, and came up against something he had probably never seen before: peer review.  It was sent to an anonymous referee who sent a report objecting that Einstein's maths was wrong.  Einstein reacted angrily:
Dear Sir,
We (Mr. Rosen and I) had sent you our manuscript for publication and had not authorized you to show it to specialists before it is printed. I see no reason to address the—in any case erroneous—comments of your anonymous expert. On the basis of this incident I prefer to publish the paper elsewhere.
Respectfully,
A. Einstein
P.S. Mr. Rosen, who has left for the Soviet Union, has authorized me to represent him in this matter.
Einstein resubmitted the same paper to a smaller journal, the Journal of the Franklin Institute, which had no peer review process. 
But before publication something surprising happened: a relativity expert called Howard Percy Robertson visited Leopold Infeld, one of Einstein's collaborators in Princeton, and went over the proof with him, pointing out errors.  Infeld told Einstein about the criticism, who realised he was wrong, took it in good spirit, and wrote to the journal's editor to wholly revise the paper's conclusions before publication (which happened in 1937).  The new conclusion: gravitational waves do arise in the exact solutions too.
What was Einstein's error?  He had arrived at the result that it is impossible to construct a single coordinate system to describe plane gravitational waves without generating a singularity.  But he had not realised that this was a just co-ordinate singularity, and could be made to vanish once you allowed yourself to use more than one co-ordinate chart.
Recently it has turned out that the-anonymous referee for the Physical Review was none other than ... Howard Percy Robertson, who realised that Einstein had ignored his anonymous referee's report and went to see if he could convince him in person.
It is possible that this was Einstein's only encounter with anonymous peer review.  He certainly did not ó it.  But today, we think of Einstein as the predictor of gravitational waves.  He was their predictor, as the creator of general relativity, the originator of weak field theory, and as the person who published a paper showing that they existed in exact solutions too.  But it was only down to anonymous peer review that his claim is as strong as it is.
 
Downvotet5
 
3-6-16 Edit top of blog deleted not correct line near its top. J_Gravitational-Waves Medium of propagation is J_Aether.
3-7-16 J_Unified-J_Force-J_Field for 4 fundamental forces. J_Gravity is first defined by unification with J_Aether. J_String-J_Waves J_Spiral out into  J_Fabric of J_Universe ifrom J_Bang Initial J_Force.
3-8-16 The J_Cosmic-J_Strings in J_Aether J_Fabric of J_Universe propagation is due to J_Waves J_Acceleration shock to the crest of J_Waves forming J_Gravity-Wave.
3-9-16 The J_Deceleration of J_Waves per second so that colliding J_Waves-Crest are flattened causing J_Wave-Lengths to become longer so fewer pass per second. This process propagation continues at a slightly lesser degree out through J_Fabric of J_Universe. J_Aether is an J_Integral part of this J_Medium throughout J_Universe. This J_Medium is composed of J_Dark-J_Energy except where the J_String with J_Waves become J_Electrons in J_Atoms and J_Photons from J_Electron-J_Electron-Shells of higher than rest first J_Shell rest position. This Disclosure of J_Paradigm's J_Dark-Energy that forms J_Dark-Matter. J_Dark J_Atom as J_Dark-J_String doesn't create J_Electrons of 137 J_Waves or greater and J_Photons. These different types of J_Energy and J_Matter in J_Paradigm.
3-11-16 The difference between J_Dark (J_Matter and J_Energy) is there are no J_Electrons in J_Shell greater than J_Rest-First-J_Shell in J_Dark (J_Matter and J_Energy). This difference from the physicists concept is Disclosed here. J_Cosmic-Strings that J_Spiral out of all J_Atoms-J_Nucelei have two possible destinations a J_Electron or J_Aether with an Integral part J_Gravity. These J_Cosmic-J_Strings-J_Medium are J_Dark-J_Strings.
3-13-16. J_Fabric of the J_ universe. J_Aether is this J_Medium that also contains J_Electro-J_Magnetic J_ Spectrum. The J_Wave-Length and or J_Frequency creates this J_Spectrum. The motion near the speed of light through this electromagnetism J_Spectrum-Frequency J_Field the North and or South J_Magnetic J_Flux is 90 degrees from this direction of J_Electron.
3-14-6 If J_Electron in rest J_Atom that gains enough J_Energy so that it forms an J_Electron in J_Second J_Shell for a time then looses J_Energy so that this J_Electron will give up its existence and yield J_Photon with J_Wave-Lengths of 137 J_Waves.
3-16-16 The J_Photon then is J_Radiated through the J_Fabric of J_Universe.
3-17-16 J_Aether which is this J_Fabric which are the intertwined J_Gravity J_Cosmic-Strings. J_Paradigm main feature is these very fine sub microscopic J_Strings that form J_Unified J_Fields the J_Universe Four fundamental J_Forces act through. Also J_Photon-Light and J_Electromagnetic-J_Fields Spectrum act through. Disclosing This New and Unique Information on 3-17-16 as this information is approved.
3-21-16  The J_Waves up to this point have been set in length to fit the Bohr radius circumference with the rounded off number 137 the inverse of fine line constant of Einstein. This point is also an J_Election J_Wave-Length for an Hydrogen J_Atom at rest J_Mass. Two J_Helium J_Electrons & One in J_Hydrogen-Atom only First J_Shell (1s). Next (2s) has J_ Lithium and 7 other J_Atoms in it. (See Electronic Configurations copied below:
3-22-16 Copied from the Internet 
Copied
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the table used in chemistry. For other uses, see Periodic table (disambiguation).
 
Modern periodic table, in 18-column layout (color legend below)

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. This ordering shows periodic trends, such as elements with similar behavior in the same column. It also shows four rectangular blocks with some approximately similar chemical properties. In general, within one row (period) the elements are metals on the lefthand side, and non-metals on the righthand side.

The rows of the table are called periods; the columns are called groups. Six groups (columns) have names as well as numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18, the noble gases. The periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements, and predict the properties of new elements yet to be discovered or synthesized. The periodic table provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences.

Dmitri Mendeleev published in 1869 the first widely recognized periodic table. He developed his table to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements. Mendeleev also predicted some properties of then-unknown elements that would be expected to fill gaps in this table. Most of his predictions were proved correct when the elements in question were subsequently discovered. Mendeleev's periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behavior.

All elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (ununoctium) have been discovered or synthesized, with the most recent additions (elements 113, 115, 117, and 118) being confirmed by the IUPAC on December 30, 2015.[1] The first 94 elements exist naturally, although some are found only in trace amounts and were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature.[n 1] Elements with atomic numbers from 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories. It has been shown that elements 95 to 100 once occurred in nature but currently do not.[2] Synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is being pursued. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories.

Contents

Overview

For large cell versions, see Periodic table (large cells).
[hide] Periodic table
Group12 3456789101112131415161718
  Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals                           Pnicto­gens Chal­co­gens Halo­gens Noble gases
Period

1

Hydro­gen
1
 
He­lium
2
2
Lith­ium
3
Beryl­lium
4
 
Boron
5
Carbon
6
Nitro­gen
7
Oxy­gen
8
Fluor­ine
9
Neon
10
3
So­dium
11
Magne­sium
12
 
Alumin­ium
13
Sili­con
14
Phos­phorus
15
Sulfur
16
Chlor­ine
17
Argon
18
4
Potas­sium
19
Cal­cium
20
 
Scan­dium
21
Tita­nium
22
Vana­dium
23
Chrom­ium
24
Manga­nese
25
Iron
26
Cobalt
27
Nickel
28
Copper
29
Zinc
30
Gallium
31
Germa­nium
32
Arsenic
33
Sele­nium
34
Bromine
35
Kryp­ton
36
5
Rubid­ium
37
Stront­ium
38
 
Yttrium
39
Zirco­nium
40
Nio­bium
41
Molyb­denum
42
Tech­netium
43
Ruthe­nium
44
Rho­dium
45
Pallad­ium
46
Silver
47
Cad­mium
48
Indium
49
Tin
50
Anti­mony
51
Tellur­ium
52
Iodine
53
Xenon
54
6
Cae­sium
55
Ba­rium
56
1 asterisk
Lute­tium
71
Haf­nium
72
Tanta­lum
73
Tung­sten
74
Rhe­nium
75
Os­mium
76
Iridium
77
Plat­inum
78
Gold
79
Mer­cury
80
Thallium
81
Lead
82
Bis­muth
83
Polo­nium
84
Asta­tine
85
Radon
86
7
Fran­cium
87
Ra­dium
88
1 asterisk
Lawren­cium
103
Ruther­fordium
104
Dub­nium
105
Sea­borgium
106
Bohr­ium
107
Has­sium
108
Meit­nerium
109
Darm­stadtium
110
Roent­genium
111
Coper­nicium
112
Unun­trium
113
Flerov­ium
114
Unun­pentium
115
Liver­morium
116
Unun­septium
117
Unun­octium
118
 
      1 asterisk
Lan­thanum
57
Cerium
58
Praseo­dymium
59
Neo­dymium
60
Prome­thium
61
Sama­rium
62
Europ­ium
63
Gadolin­ium
64
Ter­bium
65
Dyspro­sium
66
Hol­mium
67
Erbium
68
Thulium
69
Ytter­bium
70
 
      1 asterisk
Actin­ium
89
Thor­ium
90
Protac­tinium
91
Ura­nium
92
Neptu­nium
93
Pluto­nium
94
Ameri­cium
95
Curium
96
Berkel­ium
97
Califor­nium
98
Einstei­nium
99
Fer­mium
100
Mende­levium
101
Nobel­ium
102
 
 

 

black=solid green=liquid red=gas gray=unknown Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °C and 1 atm)
Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas

Each chemical element has a unique atomic number representing the number of protons in its nucleus.[n 2] Most elements have differing numbers of neutrons among different atoms, with these variants being referred to as isotopes. For example, carbon has three naturally occurring isotopes: all of its atoms have six protons and most have six neutrons as well, but about one per cent have seven neutrons, and a very small fraction have eight neutrons. Isotopes are never separated in the periodic table; they are always grouped together under a single element. Elements with no stable isotopes have the atomic masses of their most stable isotopes, where such masses are shown, listed in parentheses.[3]

In the standard periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom). A new row (period) is started when a new electron shell has its first electron. Columns (groups) are determined by the electron configuration of the atom; elements with the same number of electrons in a particular subshell fall into the same columns (e.g. oxygen and selenium are in the same column because they both have four electrons in the outermost p-subshell). Elements with similar chemical properties generally fall into the same group in the periodic table, although in the f-block, and to some respect in the d-block, the elements in the same period tend to have similar properties, as well. Thus, it is relatively easy to predict the chemical properties of an element if one knows the properties of the elements around it.[4]

As of 2016, the periodic table has 118 confirmed elements, comprising elements 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (ununoctium). Elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 have been officially confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in December 2015, though their official names are yet undecided.[5] As such these elements are currently identified by their atomic number (e.g., "element 113"), or by their provisional systematic name ("ununtrium", symbol "Uut").[6]

A total of 94 elements occur naturally; the remaining 20 elements, from americium to copernicium, and flerovium and livermorium, occur only when synthesised in laboratories. Of the 94 elements that occur naturally, 84 are primordial. The other 10 naturally occurring elements occur only in decay chains of primordial elements.[2] No element heavier than einsteinium (element 99) has ever been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, nor has astatine (element 85); francium (element 87) has been only photographed in the form of light emitted from microscopic quantities (300,000 atoms).[7]

Grouping methods

Groups

A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups usually have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained below. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group generally have the same electron configurations in their valence shell.[8] Consequently, elements in the same group tend to have a shared chemistry and exhibit a clear trend in properties with increasing atomic number.[9] However, in some parts of the periodic table, such as the d-block and the f-block, horizontal similarities can be as important as, or more pronounced than, vertical similarities.[10][11][12]

Under an international naming convention, the groups are numbered numerically from 1 to 18 from the leftmost column (the alkali metals) to the rightmost column (the noble gases).[13] Previously, they were known by roman numerals. In America, the roman numerals were followed by either an "A" if the group was in the s- or p-block, or a "B" if the group was in the d-block. The roman numerals used correspond to the last digit of today's naming convention (e.g. the group 4 elements were group IVB, and the group 14 elements were group IVA). In Europe, the lettering was similar, except that "A" was used if the group was before group 10, and "B" was used for groups including and after group 10. In addition, groups 8, 9 and 10 used to be treated as one triple-sized group, known collectively in both notations as group VIII. In 1988, the new IUPAC naming system was put into use, and the old group names were deprecated.[14]

Some of these groups have been given trivial (unsystematic) names, as seen in the table below, although some are rarely used. Groups 3–10 have no trivial names and are referred to simply by their group numbers or by the name of the first member of their group (such as "the scandium group" for Group 3), since they display fewer similarities and/or vertical trends.[13]

Elements in the same group tend to show patterns in atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity. From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase. Since there are more filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus. From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound. Similarly, a group has a top to bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus.[15] There are exceptions to these trends, however, an example of which occurs in group 11 where electronegativity increases farther down the group.[16]

Group numbera [hide]12 3d456789101112131415161718
Mendeleev (I–VIII) I II   III IV V VI VII VIII I II III IV V VI VII b
CAS
(US, pattern A-B-A)
IA IIA   IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
old IUPAC
(Europe, pattern A-B)
IA IIA   IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIII IB IIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 0
Trivial name Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals                   Coin­age metalse Vola­tile metalse Icosa­gense Crys­tallo­gense Pnicto­gens Chal­co­gens Halo­gens Noble gases
Name by element Lith­ium group Beryl­lium group   Scan­dium group Titan­ium group Vana­dium group Chro­mium group Man­ga­nese group Iron group Co­balt group Nickel group Cop­per group Zinc group Boron group Car­bon group Nitro­gen group Oxy­gen group Fluor­ine group Helium or Neon group
Period 1 Hc                                   He
Period 2 Li Be                       B C N O F Ne
Period 3 Na Mg                       Al Si P S Cl Ar
Period 4 K Ca   Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Period 5 Rb Sr d Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Period 6 Cs Ba La–Yb Lud Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Period 7 Fr Ra Ac–No Lrd Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
a Current, modern IUPAC group number.
b The noble gases had not yet been discovered at the time of Mendeleev's original table. Later (1902), Mendeleev accepted the evidence for the existence of the noble gases, and placed them in a separate "group 0".
c Hydrogen (H), while placed in column 1, is not considered to be in the group alkali metals.
d Group 3: depending on the source, lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr) may be included; lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac) may be included; the f-block (with 14 lanthanides and 14 actinides) may be included.
e This group name is not recommended by IUPAC.

Periods

A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. Although groups generally have more significant periodic trends, there are regions where horizontal trends are more significant than vertical group trends, such as the f-block, where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.[17]

Elements in the same period show trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity. Moving left to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron, which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.[18] This decrease in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to increase when moving from left to right across a period. The more tightly bound an element is, the more energy is required to remove an electron. Electronegativity increases in the same manner as ionization energy because of the pull exerted on the electrons by the nucleus.[15] Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period. Metals (left side of a period) generally have a lower electron affinity than nonmetals (right side of a period), with the exception of the noble gases.[19]

Blocks

 
Left to right: s-, f-, d-, p-block in the periodic table

Specific regions of the periodic table can be referred to as blocks in recognition of the sequence in which the electron shells of the elements are filled. Each block is named according to the subshell in which the "last" electron notionally resides.[20][n 3] The s-block comprises the first two groups (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) as well as hydrogen and helium. The p-block comprises the last six groups, which are groups 13 to 18 in IUPAC group numbering (3A to 8A in American group numbering) and contains, among other elements, all of the metalloids. The d-block comprises groups 3 to 12 (or 3B to 2B in American group numbering) and contains all of the transition metals. The f-block, often offset below the rest of the periodic table, has no group numbers and comprises lanthanides and actinides.[21]

Metals, metalloids and nonmetals

 
  Metals,   metalloids,   nonmetals, and   elements with unknown chemical properties in the periodic table. Sources disagree on the classification of some of these elements.

According to their shared physical and chemical properties, the elements can be classified into the major categories of metals, metalloids and nonmetals. Metals are generally shiny, highly conducting solids that form alloys with one another and salt-like ionic compounds with nonmetals (other than the noble gases). The majority of nonmetals are coloured or colourless insulating gases; nonmetals that form compounds with other nonmetals feature covalent bonding. In between metals and nonmetals are metalloids, which have intermediate or mixed properties.[22]

Metal and nonmetals can be further classified into subcategories that show a gradation from metallic to non-metallic properties, when going left to right in the rows. The metals are subdivided into the highly reactive alkali metals, through the less reactive alkaline earth metals, lanthanides and actinides, via the archetypal transition metals, and ending in the physically and chemically weak post-transition metals. The nonmetals are simply subdivided into the polyatomic nonmetals, which, being nearest to the metalloids, show some incipient metallic character; the diatomic nonmetals, which are essentially nonmetallic; and the monatomic noble gases, which are nonmetallic and almost completely inert. Specialized groupings such as the refractory metals and the noble metals, which are subsets (in this example) of the transition metals, are also known[23] and occasionally denoted.[24]

Placing the elements into categories and subcategories based on shared properties is imperfect. There is a spectrum of properties within each category and it is not hard to find overlaps at the boundaries, as is the case with most classification schemes.[25] Beryllium, for example, is classified as an alkaline earth metal although its amphoteric chemistry and tendency to mostly form covalent compounds are both attributes of a chemically weak or post transition metal. Radon is classified as a nonmetal and a noble gas yet has some cationic chemistry that is more characteristic of a metal. Other classification schemes are possible such as the division of the elements into mineralogical occurrence categories, or crystalline structures. Categorising the elements in this fashion dates back to at least 1869 when Hinrichs[26] wrote that simple boundary lines could be drawn on the periodic table to show elements having like properties, such as the metals and the nonmetals, or the gaseous elements.

Periodic trends

Main article: Periodic trends

Electron configuration

 
Approximate order in which shells and subshells are arranged by increasing energy according to the Madelung rule

The electron configuration or organisation of electrons orbiting neutral atoms shows a recurring pattern or periodicity. The electrons occupy a series of electron shells (numbered shell 1, shell 2, and so on). Each shell consists of one or more subshells (named s, p, d, f and g). As atomic number increases, electrons progressively fill these shells and subshells more or less according to the Madelung rule or energy ordering rule, as shown in the diagram. The electron configuration for neon, for example, is 1s2 2s2 2p6. With an atomic number of ten, neon has two electrons in the first shell, and eight electrons in the second shell—two in the s subshell and six in the p subshell. In periodic table terms, the first time an electron occupies a new shell corresponds to the start of each new period, these positions being occupied by hydrogen and the alkali metals.[27][28]

 
Periodic table trends (arrows direct an increase)

Since the properties of an element are mostly determined by its electron configuration, the properties of the elements likewise show recurring patterns or periodic behaviour, some examples of which are shown in the diagrams below for atomic radii, ionization energy and electron affinity. It is this periodicity of properties, manifestations of which were noticed well before the underlying theory was developed, that led to the establishment of the periodic law (the properties of the elements recur at varying intervals) and the formulation of the first periodic tables.[27][28]

Atomic radii

Main article: Atomic radius
 
Atomic number plotted against atomic radius[n 4]

Atomic radii vary in a predictable and explainable manner across the periodic table. For instance, the radii generally decrease along each period of the table, from the alkali metals to the noble gases; and increase down each group. The radius increases sharply between the noble gas at the end of each period and the alkali metal at the beginning of the next period. These trends of the atomic radii (and of various other chemical and physical properties of the elements) can be explained by the electron shell theory of the atom; they provided important evidence for the development and confirmation of quantum theory.[29]

The electrons in the 4f-subshell, which is progressively filled from cerium (element 58) to ytterbium (element 70), are not particularly effective at shielding the increasing nuclear charge from the sub-shells further out. The elements immediately following the lanthanides have atomic radii that are smaller than would be expected and that are almost identical to the atomic radii of the elements immediately above them.[30] Hence hafnium has virtually the same atomic radius (and chemistry) as zirconium, and tantalum has an atomic radius similar to niobium, and so forth. This is known as the lanthanide contraction. The effect of the lanthanide contraction is noticeable up to platinum (element 78), after which it is masked by a relativistic effect known as the inert pair effect.[31] The d-block contraction, which is a similar effect between the d-block and p-block, is less pronounced than the lanthanide contraction but arises from a similar cause.[30]

3-23-16 Copied from My Blog Page New Instruments:

1-7-16 J_Wave-J_Mass   6.64918E-33 Kg    See Disclosure 1-4-16 for non rounded off value J_Wave-J_Mass carried at near the speed of light with in the J_Strings outside surface  one-half volume with the other one-half volume core of string moving slightly slower than outside of the J_String.

1-8-16 Copy from Page Equations:

10-1-15 I shall now work with the simple math to under stand Myconcept of basic physical properties of the Bohr Radius' Circumference divided by (137 times a J_Wave-Length ( X )). All the measured Numbers Below are in meters.

 
(0.52917721067E10)2Pi/137X(0.52917721067E−10)∗2∗Pi/137X
 
X = 2.42694779E-12

10-3-15 The Length X  is a J_Wave-Length in Hydrogen inner Shell at rest energy J_Electron. I disclose here that X value of J_Wave-Length is X/2 with a increase of twice the frequency for both of the J_Electrons energy levels are accepted by the inner Shell of the Hydrogen J_Electron.
  
10-4-15 Copied from My Turbocad 7 The following graph of J_Wave:

In[1]:= Plot[Sin[x], {x, -2.42694779*10^-12/2, 2.42694779*10^-12/2}]

Out[1]= \!\*GraphicsBox[,,Hue[0.67,0.6,0.6],LineBox[CompressedData["1:eJxTTMoPSmViYGCwBmIQ3clSLc4QWboXRge85j+uZ4egxS4tKYtVRtBL5p+7uuttCZzeZ6U0pbQJQT8ReeZ+f2YxnPb+Jnhg04EiOH1zb8/ZE68L4XSEporQZRYELTFHWdpdtwBOT0qt3xbXngenHeNDE7fsyYHTxem/p9wVyIbT7dtvmb13yITTcmJdiVf60+E0k+P1bXbPU+H0ic2xVROlUuC0gOmWY9tzkuC01T/nxmOzEuB0svrjM1sWxcLp8Px7K5p9o+A0v7tPovKGMDh91jpKOysgGE7Pbdi6mDnQH05f2aU7213ZA06L6T/berPAEU7vb2UXlo4xgdNzWnmYa0yk4bRik/enc98kbWF05mI5DueXJnBa6ucUNml9Rzj9vcH0wqdKDzi94Hrc+62L/OG0/K/FpaIawXB61Q9V8f/HwuC0wS325Y4aUXBaRnndw8qKWDit9O7D/IKOBDhtvMfq2AXTJDid5ORd58GeAqf5d3WvfbMzFU7np+pt4k5Jh9NvT0z3cDLKhNMvZA3Dlj7MgtOM2hO/ym/NgdNns4OzRBvy4DTPeaXV0mIFcNrB5X+mxT8EbbSpOOX1tUI4/c9y5sno1UVw+qbsou/XJxbD6aJfTomvMkrg9NbfnBJv2xD0jz8Xzr1fgqDr/sfZfH2AoA8yqH3+/g9BszC9XflLphROuzFvSfhrhaCh+RJOAwAyj8Ic"]],AspectRatio>NCache[GoldenRatio(1),0.6180339887498948],Axes>True,AxesOrigin>0,0,PlotRange>1.213473894999999912,1.213473894999999912,1.213473845470453212,1.213473845470453212,PlotRangeClipping>True,PlotRangePadding>Scaled[0.02],Scaled[0.02]]\*GraphicsBox[,,Hue[0.67,0.6,0.6],LineBox[CompressedData["1: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"]],AspectRatio−>NCache[GoldenRatio(−1),0.6180339887498948],Axes−>True,AxesOrigin−>0,0,PlotRange−>−1.2134738949999999‘∗−12,1.2134738949999999‘∗−12,−1.2134738454704532‘∗−12,1.2134738454704532‘∗−12,PlotRangeClipping−>True,PlotRangePadding−>Scaled[0.02],Scaled[0.02]]

In[2]:= 
(2.42694779*10^-12)/ 2

Out[2]= 1.21347*10^-12

Half_J_Wave-Length_bitmap.doc

To see the Plot click on the above.

3-24-16 Copy the above Mathematica program for sine wave below:

Book2.pdf

J_Wave-Lenght_SINE_WAVE.doc

3-11-16 The above J_Hydrogen J_Atom with the J_Electron at the lower rest J_Level if J_2Level which is higher J_2Frequency that fits the J_2Circumference of the J_2Shell for J_2Electron higher J_2Level. J_Lithium J_Atom has 1 J_2Electron in this J_2Shell and 2 J_1Electrons J_1Rest J_1Shell.

3-30-16 Continued on New Instruments 1-10-16 Reference the above Atoms.

12-6-15 Copy from Quora:

 

Answer: That’s a darn good question! But first, a clarification.​ In the same.​.​.​
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Logan R. Kearsley
Logan R. Kearsley upvoted this answer.
Why does General relativity require tensors whilst Newtonian only requires vectors?
 
Viktor T. Toth
 
Viktor T. Toth, IT pro, part-time physicist
Written Thu

That’s a darn good question!

But first, a clarification. In the same sense in which general relativity is a tensor theory, Newtonian gravity is a scalar theory. That is, the...

 Read More »

 

 12-7-16 J_Gravity is created when  J_Mass-J_Atom of one body is in circled by J_String of another bodies J_Mass that pushes the bodies toward each other by scalar J_Vectors. J_Vectors-Resultant of average of many vectors. The scalier J_Vector is inversely proportional to the distance between the bodies centers of J_Gravity. 

 12-8-16 The above new and unique disclosure is a deeper concept of Newtonian gravity scalar Theory. This is why J_Gravity-J_Waves pushes on other J_Strings as they J_Spiral from their source J_Atom.

copied from Einstein spacetimeandspeed on tnternet: