## Space, Time & Speed

By u 5-20-16 All sources by conventional methods will be cited when I rewrite this Blog  before releasing in Book Form.

The Cub in photo is built in Zlin like mine in Czech Republic.
11-11-11 ) on header page About Us near the end in 31. On  (1-5-15 Edit that page has been lost) added my concepts of Aether Disclosures.
5-13-13 Homestead setup Domain name spacetimeandspeed for me at $160 per year up to now I have been posting on facebook but that has quit working. Up until now the most I paid was$70 per year.
9-17-13 I am now on another Website with my Domain that I can Edit and Add pages too.
So far I have added 2 pages  About and First Flight, to this Index page.
9-20-13 Now I have added all pages but no images. I need to learn how to load images' photos and ajax on a page.

My Planes Economics and Analogs
Mark Boarman has offered to fly my plane N808JD to Flagstaff Airport by ferry permit to Wiseman for Annual Inspection and signoff. I will get with Bob Luna tomorrow August 31, 2009 and call Greg Roberts at FSDO AZ and with Bob Luna to see how to go about getting a ferry permit.I have told Mark that N808JD is mot covered by insurance but you can't get insurance to ferry the plane anyway. The C-172 that Bob used to rent before Bob got forced out of the FBO and maintenance buildings by the City Council of Cottonwood airport committee at P52  was sold. I was going to finish up my Biannual Flight Review in it. A CFI Ed Moats is looking for another C-172 to finish my Biannual Flight Review with him. My Annual Inspection is scheduled with Russ or Rory at Wiseman in Flagstaff on Sept,8. 2009.The Plane N867SA picture below is like my Zlin Savage Classic Cub look alike a J3 Cub. Pat Moore told me I should be able to get a  ferry permit from Cottonwood to Flagstaff for an annual inspection at Wiseman Aviation.

1-06-11 I haven't been unable to update this Web Page
because it will not Publish
1-06-11 Called Homestead Technologies 1-800-797-2958 selected 1 choice offered got Anthony.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Told him the problem because I haven't received an Email from them yet and he looked up my account but needed my credit card number again. He looked over my account info and said he would Email it to me at cactusjackdoan@gmail.com I have never got this again?He gave my pin no. 26887 and also a new username cactusjackdoan@gmail.com & new password qduroriz4123 which I logged on with at my Intuit Sitebuilder icon on my desk top window after getting Microsoft.com webpage via internet explorer as he advised me to to get their phone number. I tired ti get their phone number but couldn't. He had tryed to assist me on my PC by NTRsupport session code 59ou1177. He then said me to call Microsoft and I asked him for that No. but he said I would have to go to www.microsoft.com and get it which I try but could not get it.
1-26-11 I can auto log on now but not publish? ​​​​
2-26-11 Changed to INTUIT SiteBuilder Plus.
10-17-11 I support the Ideal of Occupy Wall Street.
Jackbecommspeednet’s Weblog
Continue after New Physical Constancy’s JLD Edit WordPress.com weblog
Copy of SciAm.com Einstine’s Math
September 25, 2007

What is the significance of E = mc2? And what does it mean?
Ronald C. Lasky, director of the Cook Engineering Design Center at Dartmouth College, explains the significance behind this hallowed equation:It is the most famous equation in the world. Many can recite it—and attribute it to Albert Einstein—but few know its significance.It tells us that mass and energy are related, and, in those rare instances where mass is converted totally into energy, how much energy that will be. The elegance with which it ties together three disparate parts of nature—energy, the speed of light and mass—is profound.
Here is where the equation of all equations comes from:
It was known for some time before Einstein’s insights that electromagnetic radiation (light, for example) possessed momentum. This quality of radiation is small in magnitude—after all, you needn’t worry about being knocked over by sunlight—but easily measurable. Applying an understanding of light’s momentum within a little thought experiment, it is possible to see how E = mc2 comes about.
Consider a cubic hollow box at rest in space with sides of length D and a mass of M. This box is also symmetrical in its mass distribution. One of the faces inside the box is coated with a fluorescing material, and, at a given moment, a photon (i.e., a particle of light) is emitted from that material, perpendicular to its surface. The momentum of this photon causes the box to move in the opposite direction as the photon, and it continues to move until the photon hits the opposite wall. During this time the box moves a very small distance, Δx.

Newton’s laws of mechanics tell us that the center of mass cannot move, because the box has not been acted upon by an outside force. However, in order to keep the center of mass constant, since the box has moved, some mass must have been transferred from the fluorescing side of the box to the absorbing side in the process of generating the photon and its striking the opposite side. Therefore the photon must have a mass, m.
So the photon, which also possesses energy E, is emitted from the fluorescing side of the box. Its momentum, Pphoton, is equal to its energy divided by the speed of light: Pphoton = E / c. The photon will impart this momentum to the box, causing the box to move a small distance, Δx, during the time, t, in which the photon travels to the opposite side of the box. The momentum of the box, Pbox, is also equal to its mass, M, times the velocity, vbox, at which it moves before the photon strikes its target. (Note: The box loses the photon’s mass, m, during this process, but this slight loss can be neglected here.) Hence:
Pphoton = Pbox = E / c = MvboxThen vbox = E / cM (1)We can also determine the time it takes for the photon to travel across the box: it is equal to the length, between parallel faces, of the box (which is D), minus the amount the box moved in the opposite direction (Δx), divided by the speed of light, c. (The target will essentially have moved a slight distance closer, meaning the photon did not have to travel the full distance D.):t = (D – Δx) / c

But, since Δx is a minute fraction of D, we essentially get:
t = D / c (2)
Now, since vbox = Δx / t , using equation 2, vbox can be restated as:
vbox = Δxc / D (3)
Substituting equation 3 for the term vbox in equation 1:
Δxc / D = E / cM
Next, we rearrange the terms to get:
ΔxM = ED / c2 (4)
Assuming the center of the box is initially at x = 0, this position is also the center of mass, xm. After the photon event, the box moves Δx to the left, as shown in the figure below, and the equivalent mass of the photon, m, is deposited on the opposite side. As mentioned above, we recall from Newton’s Laws that the center of mass must not change, because the box is not acted upon by an outside force. This concept is expressed in the center of mass equation below. The center of mass is at x = 0 in the left half of the equation and it is still at 0 after the photon strikes the opposite wall as described in the right half of the equation.
xm, initial = xm, final0 = (–MΔx – mΔx + mD) / M
0 = (mD – (M + m)Δx) / MSolving for Δx:
Δx = mD / (M + m)
Since m is extremely small:
Δx = mD / M (5)Substituting equation 5 into equation 4:(mDM) / M = ED / c2The mass of the box and D cancel out, leaving:m = E / c2

Which rearranges to:
E = mc2
Posted by jackbecommspeednet

2nd part of Analogy to THEORY OF EVERYTHING
September 24, 2007

14_________________________

Next from Scientific American July 2000 Page 75 upper right Quote:
"AThe Standard Model
The Standard Model of particle physics encompasses our knowledge of the fundamental particles and how they interact. It contains two kinds of particles of matter and particles that transmit forces. For example, the electromagnetic force between a proton and an electron is generated by photons (Particles of light) being passed back and forth between them. The matter particles come in three families of four, each family differing only by mass. All the matter around us is made of particles
from the lightest family. These are Aup@ quarks, Adown@ quarks, electrons and electron-neutrinos. The other two families of matter particles exist only ephemerally after being created in high-energy
collisions (neutrinos, however, are long lived). The quarks are stuck together by the strong force, carried by gluon’s, to form Ahadrons,@ which include the photons and neutrons that combine to make atomic nuclei. Electrons, attracted to these nuclei by the electromagnetic force carried by photons, orbit nuclei to form atoms and molecules. The weak interaction, carried by the W and Z particles, helps to fuel the sun and is responsible when an atomic nucleus decays and emits an electron and a neutrino.
Gravity, the weakest force, is most familiar to us because it acts on mass and we live on a very massive object, the earth. Particles called gravitons are assumed to carry gravity, but they have not
been detected, because the force is so weak. Also, gravitons are not yet properly incorporated into the Standard Model. The entire system of matter and forces (Except gravity) is encapsulated in a few
simple equations derived from a function (The system=s ALagrangian@) that is organized around one core principle (known as local gauge symmetry). Why nature has three families of matter is just one of many questions unanswered by the Standard Model. Considered one of the great intellectual triumphs of 20th-century science, the Standard Model can only be a stepping-stone to a more complete description of nature's forces. BGram P. Collins, staff writer"

Integration of the differentiated descriptions of modern science in the above Standard Model
into Jack L. Doan's Analogies spiral energy string theory and Unified Field Theory will be
accomplished in the following refinement of my Analogies.
7/23/2000 continue Jack L. Doan Analogies
Got the book, paperback, A Complete Education-Without The Tuition! Instant Physics from Aristotle to Einstein, and beyond by Tony Rothman, Ph. D. Byson Press Book published by Fawcett Columbine – New York

15________________________

From page 101 Ademo 1 More On Forces and Fields!! Make sure you know definitions on force and field strength from the text. You also need the definition of potential energy from Chapter 3.
Physicists designate the gravitational field strength to be defined as g = F/m; it is just the acceleration, g. By analogy the electric field strength is defined as E = F/q. Notice the analogy is not exact. We know by now F = ma, always. That means the electric field is E – F/q = ma/q. The field strength is in not the acceleration, as it is for the gravitational field, but the acceleration multiplied by the ratio $$m/q).@$$
1: $$e = m c^2$$
2: $$d/de (e = m c^2)$$
3: m := 1 10^-30 approximate mass of electron
4: c := 0.1 3 10^8 @ c = speed is 1/10 th the speed of light
5: e = 9/10000000000000000 = the energy is 9 times 10^ – 16 ? units
AAlso we defined potential energy (Chapter 3, Equations 2 and 4) as force applied over given distance, PE = Fd. For gravity the force on a mass is, from above, F = mg. For electric field the force on a charge is F = qE. We can then write for the potential energy of the charge
PE = Fd = qEd. (1)
Combination Ed is given a special name: volts; Ed = V.@
My response to page 179 of Quantum Mechanics A(on the other hand, the mass of an electron is only 10^-30 kilograms and it may be moving at a tenth the speed of light. In this case LAMBDA db can be large enough to measure (calculate it!).@ First I calculated e see equations 1 thru 5 above my start using program DERIVE in refining my analogies. Next LAMBDA db = h/mv = h/p. (9) From page 165 Quantum Mechanics Elight = h*v. (1)
AH v was the frequency of the light and h was a number. From the experimental data Planck found that the h was about 6.6 * 10^-34 joule – seconds. Today h is called Planck=s constant in his honor. Just as important he needed to postulate that the black body Astrings@ could not have any old energy, but had to have discrete energy given by
Estring = nhv Or v = Estring/nh. (2)
The important thing is that the number n must be an integer, 1, 2, 3,… then the bottom form of equation 2 shows that the string (oscillator) with a given energy Estring vibrates at a certain frequency when n = 1, at another when n = 2, etc., but it cannot vibrate at frequencies in between. (2) is contained the original use of the Quantum Principle: certain quantities in nature occur only in discrete intervals; the size of these intervals is determined by Planck's constant, h.@
Therefore: LAMBDA db = h/mv = h/p
LAMBDA db = 6.6*10^-34 / 1*10^-30 * .1*3*10^-30
cycles per second joule-seconds kilograms meters / second
LAMBDA db = 6.6*10^-34 / .3*10^-60
cycles per second joule-seconds kilograms meter / second
LAMBDA db = 6.6/.3 * 10^26
LAMBDA db = 22*10^26 cycles/second
16_____________________

Continued the above quote ADeBroglie's ideas were confirmed in 1927 when electrons, beamed through crystals, showed wave-like diffraction patterns, just like those in Young's experiment! The idea that particles sometimes behave like waves and visa versa leads to startling results. For example we know from Young's experiment that a beam of light shown on two slits will form a specific diffraction pattern on a distant wall or photographic plate (see chapter 4). This two slit diffraction pattern is conclusive proof that light behaves as a wave and is passing through both slits. If you cover up one slit, you do not get the same pattern.
On the other hand, we have said a beam of light consists of particles called photons. Pretend the beam of light is so dim that one photon at a time is passing by the slits. If photons are particles, surely each passes through one slit or the other. Indeed, if you perform this experiment you will see on the photographic plate little spots where the photons have fallen, conclusive proof of the particle nature of photons. But as the pattern builds up over many photons, you reproduce the 2 slit diffraction pattern, which is proof that the light passes through both slits and is a wave! If you cover up one slit or the other each time a photon passes you won't get the 2 slit pattern! Each photon must somehow sense both slits, like a wave, even though it is recorded on the photographic plate like a particle!@
Now, in continuing my Jack L. Doan analogy refinement, #4 Analogy of spiral String Energy the photon will be further discussed to demonstrate that the above wave particle duality which is the central dilemma of the 20th century and now still unsolved until now with this publication in the 21st century we are starting with the refinement of Jack L. Doan's #4 Analogy of Spiral String Energy
delineation of the photons wave particle duality.
The spiral string of energy of E = mc^2 is the sub-component of this particle photon that has this energy field the photons part of ether that extends outside of present day science defined radius by many magnitudes.

“180 INSTANT PHYSICS 17_____________________

Posted by jackbecommspeednet

Anologies on THEORY OF EVERYTHING
September 24, 2007
01 Jack L. Doan's Analogies on THEORY OF EVERYTHING Evolution 9-24-07 Fundamental Facets of My Analogy of Religiosity: PAGE 1. Facet of Creation Intelligent Formulator (GOD) , my concept used in the introverted study of creation fundamental facets in the following; Analogy: God (Creation Intelligent Formulator) is mankind's icon in these last 25 centuries in mankind's measurement of time. The Creation Intelligent Formulator gives the intelligent creatures mankind (that can reason) and (aliens also) their reason for being, their guide for what they should be doing, their goal, that they should be striving toward & their life and death philosophies. This subject changes in mankind's time frames. The first survival activities were composed of food gathering & securing shelter concept of God (Creation Intelligent Formulator) was surly different that of an individual conception in our modern time as well as that of the individual's in the next two time frames before this modern time frame. The second major time frame of mankind's survival activities and a major change in the individual's reasoning was in growing food to harvest as well as the food gathering from nature above. Securing shelter and other services & commodities as Economies and division of labor developed. The third major change was in the industrializing of the production of food, shelter, commodities and services in harvesting of the Creation Intelligent Formulators resources as well as the previous two times frames activities. The forth major change is now in the harvesting of knowledge that the formulations of math have been utilized in the major economic substance, like the burning of coal in the previous major change (coal that is a resource the creator provided) which evolved into other fossil fuels as well as growing organic fuels and Atomic Energy; now the basics of math are being used in our information exploitation. Jesus Christ, his Apostle and Profits in their previous dimension of time both by mankind's measurement and Gods everlasting steady state measurement of time and my analogy of science:E=MC^2 Time in the speed of light see page 2 and my hypothesis of the dimension of time; (motion through space) see page 2. Other religions have had God (Creation Intelligent Formulator) revealed to them as Christ revealed Christianity to his religion. Religiosity was revealed to me in respect to mankind's political behavior (decision making process) by the Methodist College Professor of theologies in the computer department that studies the religiosities of organizations and individuals. In my study of Biology my inelegant introverted Analogy of the Creation Formulator (God) is in the DNA.

2-23-17 Today I insert (decision making process) in our nation under our president Donald Trump in his executive order against defenseless immigrants from 7 muslim nations, and undocumented persons from south of our border who come here to work for a living wage to be deported in in his desire to get the criminals out of USA. This is the reason for many protest across our nation and also his doing away with Obama health care. There has been many town hall meetings on these concerns. There are many sanctuaries being set up like like the underground railroad for persons being denied their human rights in this decision making process.
2-28-17 Copied from wix.com to days post:

Continue from last comment above President Donald Trump speech to USA Government House and Senate on His recommend Budget cuts and military buildup plus health care overhaul.

Pruitt's comment on: Trump to tout rollback of “burdensome” Regulations EPA. He will propose a imagination reform Bill with compromises. The decision making process were isolation nationalism to be the main focus for our government that will give a economic peak then a bad fall as in the past.

3-2-17 AG Session, Richard Blumenthal says Jeff Session owes comitee before FBI where he committed serious misstatement in his relation to Russian Ambassador. He recused himself on any of Donald Trump's campaign as Attorney General. Trump has turned down the usual ethics training for members of his new administration. His decision making process is not going smoothly at all.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
02 Fundamental facets of my analogy of science. PAGE 2. A facet of creation E=MC^2 meaning orthese symbols used by Albert Einstein is also used by me in my intellectual, introverted study of creation fundamental facets in the following analogy: E's (Energy) motion through space = (equals) is made up of M(Mass) the confined path of this motion through space times (the speed of light) times (the speed of light. The fundamental facet of this Creation Analogy is not the Big Bang in an instant of time (standard of science as currently understood by the majority of Scientist ) as claimed by Steven Hawkins versus a Steady State Universe but with the fundamental facets being Steady State where the Big Bang Facet is only an integral of one instance of time, not the continuum in time of the Steady State Universe where E = MC^2 as given in the Analogy above. My Hypothesis of a Steady State Universe . The Facet of Time in my Analogy is the motion through space of energy in the confined paths of mass, or in the confined paths of photons or other particles of atoms plus their more linear paths through the universe ( which are also the cases of other fundamental particles like quarks, anti-quarks, gluons, hadrons & mesons). The energy that mass is composed of in the motion through space ( Time ) after a certain period in the physical universe can be changed by E = MC^2 Analogy to a form of energy in time so as to cycle back to the area in time of its origin in the facet of the Big Bang in an instant in time and there by completing the Analogy of the Fundamental Steady State Universe contingent on my hypothesis of the dimension of time (the motion through space of energy in the form of mater in confined paths of mass, or in the confined paths of photons or other particles of atoms plus particles like quarks, anti-quarks, gluon’s, hadrons, & mesons) E = MC^2. Note any path is not linear but is a curve & (all lines are curves as I heard approximately 50 years ago when Albert Einstein stated this). These are my Fundamental Facets of my Analogy of the dimension of time. The dimension of time is motion through space of energy in the form of mater on either side of the equation E = MC^2 following a curved path so as to complete the cycle that is my Analogy of the dimension of time for mankind's science. Examples: The cycle of energy cloud in the confined path of the electron a quantity of energy in a curved path within its shell around the nucleus of an atomic mass so as to complete a cycle at the speed of light. This relative small dimension of time compared to the relatively larger dimension of time, the motion though space of energy in the form of mass E = MC^2 of the mass of the earth in its curved path in its orbital shell around the sun in a cycle of one year (mankind's unit of time measure) at C = 2.997923 x 10^10 cm per second + or -.000008 ( the second being a fraction of a year ) with another facet and dimension of time the rotation of the earth a year mankind's unit of measure factored in. See above for Analogy of Religiosity .

03 The hypothesis of the make up of Ether medium that is like in the Undulatory Theory of light permeates all space and transmits transverse waves and also the medium like that which transmits radio waves in my Analogy the Ether medium is the network of shells about the nucleus of every atom that the energy of the atom=s electrons can in their confined path's rise to higher levels in. Even outside the highest level of the electrons in these possible shells energy occupied by the photons in instances of time. At this point the facets of my analogy of time above is further defined here: Albert Einstein’s time constant C in his equation solved for mass M = E / C^2 and solved energy in his famous formula E = M * C^2 is where I come up with my analogy concept of time which is uniquely mine at this time. The reason why I beginning Algebra Mr. Saddler got me started as follows:instead of using symbols to represent quantity is that in 7th and 8th years of my schooling at Addison, New York my math teacher in teaching is in equations;Use the words that describe these quantities. I did this but it made me poor at math including algebra because just manipulating symbols is much faster and easier than doing math in my introverted way he probably got me started on. But per the old saying in every cloud there is a silver lining. Because of this, what the vast majority of scientists and mathematicians in their excellent symbol manipulation in science and math they may have thrown out the baby with the bath water! Albert Einstein’s C to me (2.997923*10^10 cm per second + or ‑ 0.000008 in metric linear measurement in a second unit measurement of time) the speed of light photons or wave fronts through the ether in outer space or vacuum or other excellent medium is, time, to my mathematical introverted way of thinking is motion through space of any of these mediums which I call either when squared so as to be an area measurement constant of time. I think this is why Albert Einstein dealt with gravity in his concept of a plane warped so that mass M or energy moving on it would take the path of least resistance in moving through space medium. In my analogy inertia and gravity work through the ether of these same networks of shells that extend around the nuclei of every atom in the confined paths of energy along its curved path in its transfer or force field functionality. Facet of Michelson & Morley’s experiment to verify the presence of the ether that went wrong: It has occurred to me that if the motion of the earth through the ether which the experiment was trying to detect and failed to find. Then according to my hypothesis it is possible that the speed of light which was to appear to vary being populated through their hypotheses the speed of light would be constant through my concept of the ether’s make up relative to the earth’s motion through space with all its atoms and their network of shells so that the speed of light would be constant relative to earth. 6. My hypothesis of gravity and inertia which is like my previous hypothesis and analogies are also part of my Unified Field Theorem hypotheses. My hypothesis of the make up of ether now becomes the network of shells around all the atoms in the universe that forms the field nodes that

04 physical forces act on. Though other electromagnetic fields like light and radio waves the Unified Field hypotheses and my hypothesis of gravity and inertia will be recorded here now with inertia being the first next. My analogy of E = M C^2 that led me in the hypothesis of ether make up of shells network around the atoms nuclei of an object also becomes the basis of the concept and hypothesis of inertia. 6-11-2000 Jack L. Doan's Analogy Unified Field Theorem Integrated Intuitions: Inertia unify with Momentum ; Acceleration unify with Deceleration ; Increase Gravity unify with Decrease in Gravity;
{see Blog  Equation t' below}
Time unify with Motion Through Space ,” t’ = t *√ ((1 – v^2) / C^2) ” … See Relativity for the Layman Page 65. Jack L. Doan's Analogy Time = Motion Through Space. Before proceeding review the book that Albert Einstein wrote on it's cover (Gives a really clear idea of relativity, by Albert Einstein ). Relativity for the Layman E=MC^2 A simplified account of the history, theory, and proofs of relativity with illustrations by the author, James A. Coleman. A mentor book published by The New American Library. Copyright 1954-60.

05
First look at page 120, chapter 7, 3rd printing, April 1960 The Unified Field Theory An example Apages 120, 121 and 122″ could be expressed mathematically by Newton's approximate law (equation ￼ : F = (G M m / d^2) Where M is the mass of one object, m that of the other, d the distance between them, and G the gravitational constant. But, we also know of other types of forces which are similar to gravitational attraction. Two unlike electrical charges (a negative charge and a positive charge) will also attract each other with a force given by the equation 10: F = CQq/ d^2 Where Q is the amount of negative charge, q that of the positive charge, d the distance between them and c a constant. This particular formula is called Coulombs Law after it=s discoverer. We also have a similar formula given by the force of attraction between two unlike magnetic poles (a north magnetic pole and a south magnetic pole). Equation 11: F = K Mm/ d^2 Where similar to the other two formulas, M is the pole strength of the north magnetic pole, m the pole strength of the south magnetic pole, d the distance between them and K another constant different from the previous G and C. Skipping to the bottom of page 21 the attempt to derive these equations from more fundamental theory comprises one particular aspect of the Unified Field Theory. The general purpose of the unified field theory is much broader than this, however. It is an attempt to deduce all the physical phenomenon we know from a few simple fundamental principles. Skipping to the bottom of page 22 Einstein=s approach to the problem was to consider the field itself in an effort to understand the basic underlying properties of fields in general. Then gravitational, electric and magnetic fields would follow on as special cases and the general theory of relativity (since it is a theory of gravitation ) would be derivable from the unified field theory.In 6. Above my hypothesis sets up my disclosure of my hypothesis on the fundamental principles of his concept of the Unified Field Theory. Now, in further expanding on this information, the Fundamental Principles are continued. Initially start with my concept of time and how my concept evolved and is evolving. Simple statement: Time is motion through space. Now expanding definitions. First the motion of what? In my introverted intelligent initially from my early school days I defined time as the movement of the earth around the sun as it rotates on its axis. Then recognizing this was in terms of a physical solid

07 becomes less strong where V the Vanderwall force constant, M the mass of the atom being observes, m another atom being interactive with present system or outside the present system, d the distance between them is my new F (force) in this expanding Unified Field Theorem fundamental principle of my new and unique concept #1 analogy of spiral energy string could require constants similar to V picked here at the Vanderwall shell levels arbitrarily picked as the F in this atom shell level that extend to infinity which gets smaller to (1/infinity^2) one divided by infinity squared in respect to the distance between two masses in this case an atom and the rest of the atoms in the system the atom is in and all the other systems in the universe the masses constant of Unified Field Theory proportionality will themselves proportionally change as the masses atomic radii change in respect to the spiral string functionality in this non consistent ether. The discussion up through here has been on the outward part of the energy string theory spiral that extends large distances. The more significant part of the energy string spiral is the inward part that ends in the nucleus of the atom. This is the part of the energy string theory spiral that causes attraction between atoms, masses and systems, electrical charges. From the Mathematics Life Science book by David Bergamini Life, Sciences Library, revised edition of the Time/Life book, copyrights 1980, page 165, The birth of an idea that shocked the world Einstein pieced out a strange theory called ARelativity@ which said that time, length and weight are no absolutes but, vary according to the speed. Now at the start of this first paragraph AAlbert Einstein sat in a Swiss patent office puzzling over unusual scientific observations – indications that the universe was not acting in precisely the way that Newton's long-accepted laws said it should. The speed of light for example, appeared to be constant in all experimental observations, no matter how fast the light source or the observer moved with respect to the beam. In My New and Unique Concept this is because the ether that Michelson-Morley experiment was to detect, the ether was not accurately hypothesized. My Hypothesized Concept of ether is the #1Analogy Spiral Energy String Theory that extends from the individual atoms of the mass systems of matter in ether outside and inside matter from the light source where Photons #4Analology travels in strait paths interacting with #1Analogy.to the different system of mass in the matter of the observer in the Michelson-Morley experiment setup. The speeds of photons moving in strait lines interacting with these strings that ether comprises to the individual atom strings and strait line waves of photons which they form are traveling at the constant speed of light, 2.997923(10^10) Meters per second in this medium of #1Analogy of energy spiral string theory of spiral paths that are thousands of meters radii from the matter of the system out in what was considered a complete vacuum of space or contained ether but on what my concept the #1Analogy Ether which is not like the ether Michelson-Morley experiment had conceived. The energy strings of #1Analogy become thinner the greater the distance from the nucleus of the atom energy spiral string as it goes out to near infinity where it is nearly infinity thin on both the outward part and also going out on the inward part of this spiral that closes in the nucleus. I will discuss the #5 through #10Analogy Energy spirals that are smaller like the electrons & photons size within the nucleus of atoms later in this disclosure.The photon's #4Analogy smaller energy string theory system is repelled in strait lines interacting

08 with the #1Analogy energy spiral string theory at the velocity of light away from the source atom electron shell as the electron shell level gives up this new bundle of energy. And also the ether matrix of different atoms strings both repel and attract depending on the part of #1Analogy energy string spiral, the smaller energy string spiral of the small system photon is interacting with causes it to move at the speed of light whether it is leaving the source system it is being repelled from or being attracted to the receiver system of the observer. Therefore, this new and unique concept of the force of attraction from the inward part of the spiraling energy string theory causes magnetic attraction, electrical charge attraction, Vanderwall attraction and Gravity as well as helping with its function of holding valance electrons in their shells & all electrons in their shells and the nucleus spiral systems in the nucleus area of the atom. These Forces will be further analyzed in my unified field theorem that may not leave credence to an ever expanding universe. Also the spiral string theory, both on the outward parts and then on the inward parts of the spirals of the many atoms in the universe is the ether that the small energy spiral string theorem photon units at the velocity of light leave the curve spiral string theory energy pattern of #1 analogy and interact in a straight line path as smaller photon spiral string energy is repelled away from the source atom or attracted to the atoms inner spiral energy string of the receiving atom by this Unified Field Theorem. I have started reading ARelativity For The Layman@ from the start and Einstein and others theories put forth in this book all fit with my new concept of #1 analogy of the string theorem of energy spirals. It explains why there were problems in the theorems that were expressed before Einstein=s special theory of relativity and attempts at a Unified Field Theorem and as I continue to read about his general theory of relativity I will review and express how my concepts fit below. Continuing reading ARelativity for the Layman page 78 refers to equation on page 57 Equation 2: m = M / Sqr=t ( 1 – ( v^2 ) / C^2 ) As Mass m increases with increase in v ( Velocity ). The spectral lines split in the atoms spectrum analysis because of rosette-shaped orbits of the electrons in this atoms elliptical electron orbits the character of the splits of the spectral lines depending on the type of atom. My concept of mass increase per the above equation is #1 Analogy energy spiral string theorem in mass of atoms moving through the ether formed in the atoms energy spirals string theorem beyond the system of the matter into space very similar to page 58 A An analogy illustrating the mass increase with velocity occurs with a ship moving through the ocean. Some water is always dragged along behind the ship. And the faster the ship goes, the greater the amount of water dragged along. The ship thus effectively acts as if its mass increases as the velocity increases, since the water being dragged along moves with the ship and becomes part of the ships bulk.

09 The ether wind that was expected in the Michelson and Morley performed experiment would not be a factor in my concept and the page 38 and 39 of Relativity for the Layman@ possible explanation for Michelson and Morley=s results all are possible in my concept of ether composed of #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theory matrix throughout the finite universe. As to the dragging along of the ether by a mass moving through it is only partly true. First, because the source of the small part of the ether the mass is moving through is in the mass. Second, the movement of the energy in the #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem paths part of the mass beyond the part of the masses matter that is moving at the velocity v in equation 2. This energy that is part of the equation 5: E = M C^2 is moved along in the #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem paths, and that part outside of the atom valance shell is the part of the universes mass that scientists up to now haven=t been able to account for. See review of Stephen Hawking's Universe later in this scientific analogy. From ARelativity for the Layman@, page 38, where I disagree with the last phrase of the second paragraph Awe know that the ether cannot be dragged along with the earth. Where I noted NO to this phrase per #1 Analogy by Jack L. Doan. So similarly I maintain No to the quote, the other objection to this possibility is concerned with the Fresnel Drag Coefficient. As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, it was found that some materials did act as if they dragged the ether along with them, but this was only a partial drag, i.e., the ether appeared to come along with only a fraction of the velocity of the moving object. Here, however, it would be required that the ether be dragged along at the full velocity of the moving earth. My #1 Analogy like above would disagree with Michelson-Morley concept of ether and the continuing of the above quote. Here however, it would be required that the ether be dragged along at the full velocity of the moving earth. Furthermore, it was not known whether an object as large as our earth would conform to the Fresnel Drag Coefficient since Fizeau's verification of the drag effect was made on a laboratory scale only.@ So next go to page 30 of ARelativity of the Layman. AFresnel's Ether Drag A possible explanation for the failure to detect this effect was contained in the theory advanced by Fresnel in 1818. He believed that ether was thicker in material bodies than it was in vacuum or outer space and that, as a result, when a transferred object such as a telescope lens moved through the water, it dragged some of the ether along with it in much the same way a moving ship drags some water behind it. On the basis of this assumption, Fresnel computed the amount of the ether drag as a certain fraction as a velocity of the moving object, in this case the telescope lens. This fraction came to be know as the Fresnel Drag Coefficient. The net effect would be that whether the telescope was traveling toward the incoming light waves or away from them, the ether would be dragged along with the telescope; it would be impossible to detect the effect, since to do so it would be necessary for the ether to stay put while the telescope moves through it. In this case above #1Analogy Spiral Energy String Theory extendingfrom the atoms of the water (used next in the continuing quote of Fizeau experiment@ would be a small but dense amount of #1 Analogy ether moving with the running water in this laboratory experiment. This would be a very good experiment to verify some small first step in proving the theory contained in #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem as well as a means to develop the above outline of Jack L. Doan's Analogy Field Theorem integrated. 1. INERTIA <—–>

10 MOMENTUM. Now, continuing with Relativity for the Laymen skipping one paragraph on page 31. Since the Fresnel Drag Coefficient was only theoretical and had no direct experimental proof to support it (except the indirect evidence presented by the inability to detect the ether), an experiment was needed which would measure the velocity of light in a fairly dense material which was itself moving. This was done by Fizeau in 1859. He used moving water and measured the velocity of light beam traveling through the water in the same direction as the water movement, and then again in the direction opposite to the water movement. He found that the velocity of light and water was affected by the fact that the water was moving, i.e., the result was as if the water dragged the ether along with it by the same amount given by the Freznel Drag Coefficient. Because this Freznel's ether drag better fits my concept of ether than that of Michelson and Morley in 1881 experiment concept of the stationary ether postulated that the next paragraph in this continued quote pertains to and not my concept of #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem of ether as conceived by Jack L. Doan I continue that quote: The reader should not believe that as a consequence of all this it was proved that the ether really existed and that it was dragged along with a moving object so that it escaped detection. The Freznel Ether Drag Theory was a possible explanation if and only if the ether existed and behaved as outlined. In1881 but today this Freznel drag coefficient and the Fresnel improved on type of experiment would make a good first step in developing #1 Analogy spiral energy string theorem as well as Jack L. Doan's Analogy Unified Field Theory integrated item 1 <—–> Momentum.Next back to page 79 Relativity for the Layman where I am now reading the quote the electrons mass and would verify the mass-increase effect predicted by the special theory splitting of the spectral lines was the first observed and announced by Paschen in 1916, when he was investigating the spectrum of helium. It is interesting to note that one month after Peschen published his discovery, the Sommerfield theory was published which predicted the splitting of the spectral lines on the basis of the special theory of relativity – and again the mass – increase effect of the special theory of was verified..Atomic Accelerators – Additional examples of the mass increase with velocity have come from spectacular results of the giant atom – smashing machines which have been built to investigate the structure of the atomic nucleus. The primary purpose of these machines is to accelerate various atomic particles to high velocities; the more powerful the machine, the higher the velocities and the higher the velocities, the greater the mass of the particle becomes, according to the mass – increase formula. At this point #6 & #7 Analogies Spirals Energy Strings Theory of Atomic Nucleus in Jack L. Doan's unified field theory: the theory of how the spiral energy string #1 Analogy on the inward traveling part of the spiral energy string arrive at the nucleus area of the atom inside of the nucleus shell radii #6 Analogy of the neutron spiral energy string theory is created from this energy coming into the atom from the inward part of #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String theorem. The energy of

11 this #6 Analogy Spiral Energy String passes its excess energy to a positron #7 Analogy Spiral Energy String theory also more than one of #6 & #7 Analogy Spiral Energy Strings Theories, or #7 with no #6 neutron spiral energy string theories can exist in the shell radius of the atoms nucleus. The positron is the source of the beginning of the outward #1 Analogy Energy String theorem. Also, within the nucleus, positron and neutron there can be one or more other smaller #8, #9, #10 and more spiral energy string theories. All of these analogy spirals energy string theories are mass composed of energy from E = MC^2 where M = E/C^2 . In my theory the spiral energy string theorem is divided by (2.997923 meters of distance relative to the energy per second) squared forming the fields mass is comprised of. The energy in the spiral travels at the speed of light C. Also, the photons that are repelled from the electrons shell of an atom travels in a straight line relative to #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String theorem. Before proposing the second great step in developing an experiment for an atom – smasher accelerator the tools of quantum physics and tensor algebra will be studied and applied to the Jack L. Doan's Analogies Unified Field theory. The #8Analogy Alpha Particles and *9Analogy Beta Particles which came from the splitting of the atom may or may not be part of #10Analogy Quarks and #11Analogy Antiquarks where alpha and quark be the outward parts of this still smaller spiral energy string theory likewise beta and antiquarks be the inward parts so that the Jack L. Doan's Analogy Unified Field Theory may in its integration combine the classification of these basic particles. Also the #12 Analogy Gluons, #13Analogy Hadrons and #14 Analogy Mesons may be similarly combined in the Jack L. Doan's #15Analogy Integrated Unified Field Theory. The Atomic Particles Accelerators have found that indeed there appears to be spiral energy strings that will be studied as this work continues on unified field theories in my integration of these analogies. With the results from using these tools I will try to convince the scientists that pick projects for atomic accelerators like at the Brookhaven National Laboratory that A in 1952 announced accelerating protons (nuclei of hydrogen atoms) up to 177,000 miles a second, which is about .95% of the velocity of light. As a result the mass of the proton was increased to about three times its original mass. And in June 1952, the California Institute of Technology announced it had succeeded in accelerating electrons (negatively charged particles with a mass of about .0005 that of the proton) to within a tenth of a mile a second of the velocity of light, or approximately .9999999 c! The corresponding mass increase was about 900 times the original mass! The energy of atomic accelerators throughout the world is continually being increased, with the result that the atomic particles used for the bullets in nuclear research will have larger and larger effective masses as their velocities come closer and closer to the velocity of light. So now the second great step in developing an experiment using an atom – smashing accelerator becomes an improved version of the first small step of developing verification of Jack L. Doan's Analogy Unified Field Theory. The flowing water of the first small step would be replaced by accelerating mass of single particle streams at near the velocity of light. And then a beam of light, maybe in laser will be passed very close to the dense #1Analogy spiral source just outside of these particles radii so as to see if the wave fronts of these photons are slowed by #1Analogy spiral energy string therm. Verifying Jack L. Doan's Unified Field Theory Integration. Also the effect of

12 this increased mass exerts. From the development of Jack L. Doan's Analogy Unified Field Theorem Integrated Outline 1. B. increases in gravity. Also further development 1. A. acceleration<——> d-acceleration of 1. Inertia <—–> Momentum the photons that go strait out of the source atom will follow a space line curving per gravity of the universe. Next the addition of velocities of systems of mass making up the matter of the systems of matter approaching each other on a space line curve the atoms #1Analogy spiral energy string theorem combined in each system also interact as with each others combined system so that Jack L. Doan Analogy Unified Field Theory Ether associated with two different source systems drag the energy s spirals string theorem into new interface interactions so as to decrease the velocity of each system in the mass internal work of the of the areas of ether some distance from each system on an average of the half way point between the two systems. From Relativity For The Layman, page 180, Addition of Velocities@ AFizeau's experiment – we have seen in the previous chapter how the Special Theory predicts that if two rockets, A and B, are traveling toward each other in space they will each determine their relative velocity by Equation 4: AB = ( V A + V a ) / ( 1 + (V A V B) / C^2)We found that this relative velocity is less than the sum of A and B's velocities. We have seen, too, that Fresnel=s ether drag theory also predicted that the total velocity would be less than the sum of the two. Fresnel=s reasoning had been that objects moving through the stationary ether effectively dragged some of the ether along with them, which made the resultant velocity lower. If the Fresnel formula is applied to the rockets in space, it would predict their relative velocity by Equation l7: V AB = VA + VB (1-VA^2 / C^2) where the expression in parenthesis is the Fresnel drag coefficient. The question here for #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem should by Jack L. Doan'' Analogy Unified Field Theorem Integrated as a starting point let Fresnel drag coefficient be the coefficient that applies to each system of atoms and their associated #1 Analogy Spiral Energy String Theorem. Assume the California Institute of Technology has approved so with the index of refraction factored in to the electron max velocity is still only .9999999 c and not knowing the mass of light photon set up possible experiment with Brookhaven's 1952 proton accelerator theoretically in the same tunnel as above, then the proton beam at .95 c is used. Use two proton beams like at the early 1952 Brookhaven National Laboratory experiment accelerating protons up to 177,000 miles per second approximately .95 of the velocity of light where the mass of the proton was increased to approximately three times its original mass. But, in this experiment send the protons in opposite directions for the two beams through a special observation chamber so that the two beams come as close as possible on the same space line curves so any relative velocity VAB can be observed.

13 V AB = VA + VB (1-VA^2 / C^2) VAB = .95 c + .95 c ( 1 – (.95 c^2 / c)) VAB = .95 c + .95 c (1–.95^2) VAB = .95 ( 2.997923 ( 10^10) ) + .95 (2.997923 ( 10^10) (1-.95^2) VAB = 3.125709468 (10^10) VAB / 2 = 1.562854734 (10^10) meter / second VAB / 2 – c = – 1.435077266 ( 10^10 ) meters per secondThe velocity of each proton beam appears to have slowed down to 1.562854734 ^10 meters per second – 1.435077266 ( 10^10 ) meters per second slower than the speed of light. The closing velocity VAB = 3.125709468 ( 10^10 ) meters per second. If VAB was 2* .95 c then the velocity 5.6960537 ( 10 ^ 10 ) meters per second was slowed – 1.435077267 ( 10^10 ) meters per second from that VAB without ether to 45.91204911 % of the closing velocity that had no ether effect so there would be significant slowing of a factor of more than 2 divisor or less than one-half of initial closing velocity. The creation of analogies M = E / C^2 with this approach now becomes easier to conceive with respect to Creation Intelligent Formulator that is the basic theme of my thinking. Before now, years ago, like when one-half through my tour in military service 68 – 22 = 46 years ago when not so easily to me the concept of energy making up mass and matter in the formulation of my analogies. Time, motion through space of a string of energy like that in a photon could be formed from this 0 mass when it was at rest but then caused to move with relative to another photon of 0 mass when it was at rest causes the energy strings of both when they both move so as not to occupy the same position became masses by bending to form the spiral analogies. Once this started in time the chain reactions come into being. The vector math that this postulation leads you to will be attempted with this easier approach. Once the photon chain of reaction was started billions of number 4 analogies then the other analogies in time occur all instantaneously being a starting point for all time. Could this be the instant that is called The Big Bang, but still a finite steady state universe!
11-07-11 Print entire site.
3-07-12 I agree with PBS How the Universe was made except J Waves instead of particles at the beginning after The Big Bang.

7-19-16 I have used all my Blog Pages ( 11 ) I can not save  information I will check to see if I can edit any of them. I will see if i can add here:

### What are the exact relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons?

education.jlab.org/.../parti...
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Neutron = 1.6749286*10-27 kg. Proton = 1.6726231*10-27 kg. Electron = 9.1093897*10-31 kg.
This is W10 Excel Spreadsheet see 5-10-16 : Copied from Page New Instruments;

 Hydrogen H J_Constan Photon n0 P1n0El1 Heliium He Proton Ma m Kg n=1El2P2n2 Kg theory of the nuclear force, most of themass of protons and ... n=1Bohr R 5.29E-11 1.78E-36 1.67E-27 Neutron - Up quark - Proton (disambiguation) - Category:Proton What are the exact relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons? 2 1.06E-10 3.57E-36 Neutron 1.67E-27 education.jlab.org/.../parti... Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 3 1.59E-10 1.07E-35 Electron 9.11E-31 Neutron = 1.6749286*10-27 kg. Proton = 1.6726231*10-27 kg. Electron = 9.1093897*10-31 kg. 4 2.12E-10 4.28E-35 Electron = 0.00054386734 Said another way, protons are only about 99.86% as massive as neutrons while electrons are only about 0.054% as massive as neutrons. While relative masses are nice if you want to compare protons, neutrons and electrons to one another, it doesn't tell you what the actual masses of these particles are. In kilograms, the masses are: 5 2.65E-10 2.14E-34 Neutron = 1.6749286*10-27 kg Proton = 1.6726231*10-27 kg 6 3.18E-10 1.28E-33 Electron = 9.1093897*10-31 kg There is another unit, called an electron volt (eV), that scientists use when talking about small things like protons, neutrons and electrons. An electron volt is actually a measurement of energy, but scientists can get away with using it to measure mass since mass and energy are related by Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2. So, in terms of MeV (Megaelectron volts, 1 MeV = 1,000,000 eV), the masses are: Neutron = 939.56563 MeV Proton = 938.27231 MeV Electron = 0.51099906 MeV
I could copy only on this Home Page out of 11 Pages.
Copied from End of page New Instruments;

7-9-16 Rounding off the above numbers  to 3.32E-10 Bohr circumference  / 137.036 J_Fine Structure Constant = 2.43E-12 J_Wave-Length Now is increased to J_2Shell circumference J_2Wave-Length.

7-10-16 I have made a program using number on Mac pro that uses the J_Electron-Shell number times J_Bohr-Radius:

A       B     C     D

 Hydrogen H A1*B3? Photon  n0 P1n0El1 Heliium He Proton Ma m Kg n=1El2P2n2 Kg theory of the nuclear force, most of themass of protons and ... n=1Bohr R 5.29E-11 A3*B3 1.78E-36 1.67E-27 Neutron - Up quark - Proton (disambiguation) - Category:Proton n 1.79E-36 What are the exact relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons? 2 1.06E-10 A5*B3 3.57E-36 Neuttron 1.67E-27 education.jlab.org/.../parti... 1.78E-36 Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 3 1.59E-10 A7*B3 5.35E-36 Electron 9.11E-31 Neutron = 1.6749286*10-27 kg. Proton = 1.6726231*10-27 kg. Electron = 9.1093897*10-31 kg. 1.78E- 36 4 2.12E-10 A9*B3 7.13E-36 Electron = 0.00054386734 1.78E-36 Said another way, protons are only about 99.86% as massive as neutrons while electrons are only about 0.054% as massive as neutrons. While relative masses are nice if you want to compare protons, neutrons and electrons to one another, it doesn't tell you what the actual masses of these particles are. In kilograms, the masses are: 5 2.65E-10 A11*B3 8.91E-  36 Neutron = 1.6749286*10-27 kg 1.79E-36 Proton = 1.6726231*10-27 kg 6 3.18E-10 A13*B3 1.07E-  35 Electron = 9.1093897*10-31 kg

Copied from Page New Instruments 1-19-16 : The J_Wave crest of outside of J_String radiates J_Photons smaller closed loop J_Strings with J_Wave length of their color J_Frequency on the outside of their J_String. J_Photon-J_Mass  1.782662×10−36 kg from
MeasurementUnitSI value of unit

Copied from Wikipedia on 11-23-15 I chose for J_Wavelength of Hydrogen color frequency:

I Pick (1/4863Angstrom) for predominant H frequency.

From the above Hydrogen predominant color Freq.xlsx file: 2.06E+06 cycle per sec Freq.

1-20-16 Copied from Quora Digest in my Email:

Why didn't Albert Einstein win a Nobel Prize for his work on Special/General Relativity?
Richard Muller
Richard Muller, Professor of Physics, U. Calif. Berkeley, coFounder of Berkeley Earth
182.7k Views • Upvoted by James Mitchell, 1st class M.Sci in Experimental and Theoretical Physics from Cambridge and a D.Phil in Physics from…
Richard is a Most Viewed Writer in Physics.
The Nobel Prize generally limits itself to one prize per person in any given field. Arguably, the photoelectric effect (for which Einstein was awarded the prize) was even more important than relativity, since it was a founding discovery for quantum physics. Bohr had postulated that atoms emitted light only in quantized amounts; Einstein showed that light itself was quantized. Then de Broglie postulated that electrons were also quantized ... and quantum physics was off and running.
The double laureates were Marie Curie (physics 1903 and then chemistry in 1911), Linus Pauling (chemistry 1954, peace 1962).  John Bardeen won two in physics, the first for the transistor; but the feeling was that they wanted to give it to his coworkers in superconductivity, and couldn't really leave him out. Similarly for Sanger in 1980.
So here is some useful advice: if you've won a Nobel Prize, and want to win a second one, work with a collaborator.
Downvote
Share4

1-21-16 The above program Hydrogen predominant color on J_Photon freq.xlsx Red N3-2:

 Find Frequency 3-2 Red H color: 6.57e-07 1.52e+06 Frequency

Red frequency 1/6.57E-07 wavelength = 1.52E+06 cycles per Second.

This color Red is what your brain detects when this J_Photon is stopped by the rods and cones in the retina of your eye. The colors of J_Photons is started when J_Electron J_Wave frequency are J_Inducted on J_Closed-Loop-J_Strings outer surface J_Photons.

1-22-16 Copied from above:  J_Photon-J_Mass=:

 Mass eV/c2 1.782662×10−36 kg

J_Photon-J_Mass = 1.782662x10-36 kg

J_Photon-J_Momentum=:

 Momentum eV/c 5.344286×10−28 kg⋅m/s
The Photon generic
 Mass eV/c2 1.782662×10−36 kg  * 137  may = 2.44E-44 cicle per sec

$1\; \text{eV}/c^{2} = \frac{(1.60217646 \times 10^{-19} \; \text{C}) \cdot 1 \; \text{V}}{(2.99792458 \times 10^{8}\; \text{m}/\text{s})^2} = 1.783 \times 10^{-36}\; \text{kg}.$

7-20-16 The Mac Pro Spread Sheet above the rounded off Photon generic ( 7-10-16 ) Numbers values. Delta 1.78E-36+ J_Energy-Photon to increase from J_Electron-Shell to next outer J_Electron-Shell.

7-21-16 The J_1Wave-Length 4863A = 4.863E-7 m =2.070393E6 Cycle per sec.?

# Optical Frequency Combs

An optical "frequency comb" is a very precise tool for measuring different colors—or frequencies—of light. The technology, made possible by recent advances in ultrafast lasers, can accurately measure much higher frequencies than any other tool. Frequency combs are already widely used in metrology laboratories and physics research, and they are starting to become commercially available.

Optical frequency combs rely on the relationship between time—obviously a familiar concept—and frequency, which is less familiar to most people, but is simply the number of oscillations per unit of time. NIST scientists start with lasers that emit a continuous train of very brief, closely spaced pulses of light containing a million different colors. The properties of the light over time are converted to frequency numbers to make what looks like a comb. Time and frequency are inversely related; that is, smaller units of time (or faster oscillations of light waves) result in larger frequency numbers.

The graphic below shows how a few different colors of light oscillate over time. This example is greatly simplified, and the specific units are unimportant (in reality the units would be tiny fractions of seconds). The essential point is that the blue waves oscillate much faster than the red waves, and the yellow and green waves are somewhere in between.

A simplified graphic of a corresponding frequency comb is shown below. Each "tooth" of the comb is a different color, arranged according to how fast the light wave oscillates in time. The waves that oscillate slowly (red) are on the left and the waves that oscillate faster (blue) are on the right. Frequency is measured in hertz, or cycles per second. An actual optical comb does not begin at zero on left, but at a very high number, 300 trillion hertz.

A real optical frequency comb spans the entire visible spectrum of light, and has very fine, evenly spaced teeth. The teeth can be used like a ruler to measure the light emitted by lasers, atoms, stars, or other objects with extraordinarily high precision.

The type of laser used to make the comb is critical to the precision of the ruler. The shorter the laser pulses, the broader the range of frequencies in the comb. NIST scientists use "mode-locked" lasers (see next paragraph) that emit femtosecond pulses lasting quadrillionths of a second, or millionths of a billionth of a second. The resulting comb spans several hundred thousand frequencies, or teeth, enabling flexible and accurate measurements of wide-ranging or widely varied phenomena.

Mode-locking refers to how the laser light is formed into pulses. In all lasers, light is repeatedly reflected within a mirrored cavity. In a mode-locked laser, the peaks of the different colors of light waves coincide at regular intervals, evenly spaced in time. The peaks build on each other to form very short, bright bursts of light, each containing many different frequencies (see graphic below).

The timing between pulses determines the spacing between the teeth of the frequency comb. NIST scientists use lasers that emit about 1 billion pulses per second. The faster the pulse repetition rate, the wider the spacing between the teeth, making each individual tooth easier to identify.

Finally, the stability of the laser determines the width of the individual comb teeth. A highly stabilized laser produces very fine teeth, enabling highly precise measurements of specific frequencies or changes in frequency. Special crystals, mirrors, and other techniques also are used to make the light waves and comb teeth as perfectly spaced as possible.

NIST Contributions to Frequency Combs

NIST has made a number of significant contributions to the development of frequency combs.

Physicist John Hall of JILA, a joint institute of NIST and the University of Colorado at Boulder, shared the 2005 Nobel Prize in physics for contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique. For instance, Hall and colleagues developed methods to stabilize lasers and a "self-referencing" technique that ensures the comb teeth are in exactly the right places. This involves taking two measurements from different parts of a very broad comb and comparing the results to precisely known frequencies of an atomic clock.

NIST physicists and collaborators were the first to compare the operation of multiple femtosecond frequency combs, thereby demonstrating reproducibility, and to verify that both the starting position of a comb and the spacing between the teeth can be controlled precisely. NIST scientists also have demonstrated the most precise synthesis ever of optical frequencies, generating specific colors with a reproducibility of 19 digits. The experiments are a significant step toward next-generation "atomic clocks" based on optical rather than microwave frequencies.

NIST staff and collaborators also have extended the reach of frequency combs. One project extended the wavelength coverage 1,000 nanometers (a measure for wavelengths of light) farther into the infrared than ever before, while another effort at JILA created the world's first frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet. In addition, NIST has shown that extremely stable microwave signals can be generated from optical frequency combs.

Applications of Frequency Combs

Frequency combs have dramatically simplified and improved the accuracy of frequency metrology. They also are making it possible to build optical atomic clocks, expected to be as much as 100 times more accurate than today's best time-keeping systems. Better clocks will lead to studies of, for example, the stability of the constants of nature over time, and enable improved technology for advanced communications and precision navigation systems, such as next-generation global positioning systems.

Today's best atomic clocks, and the international definition of the second, are based on the natural oscillations of the cesium atom, a frequency in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical combs provide the equivalent of regularly spaced "gears" that can be used to link the slower "ticks" of microwave-based atomic clocks to the much faster, more precise "ticks" of optical clocks (see graphic below).

Highly accurate measurements of frequencies are also essential for many other advanced fields of science that require the identification or manipulation of atoms or molecules, such as detection of toxic biochemical agents, studies of ultrafast dynamics and quantum computing. As scientists continue to improve frequency comb technology and make it easier to use, it may be applied in many other research fields and technologies, from medical tests in doctor's offices, to synchronization of advanced telecommunications systems, to remote detection and range measurements for manufacturing or defense applications.

Frequency Combs as 'Gears' of a Clock

All clocks must have a regular, constant or repetitive process or action to mark off equal increments of time. Examples include the movement of the sun across the sky, a pendulum or vibrating crystal, or, in an atomic clock, the natural vibrations of atoms. Today's standard atomic clocks vibrate at microwave frequencies, about 9 billion cycles per second. Optical atomic clocks oscillate much faster, at about 500,000 billion cycles per second, and thus divide time into smaller units. But no electronic systems exist that can directly count these oscillations. A frequency comb, functioning like the electronics in a conventional clock, can be used to divide the oscillations of optical clocks into lower frequencies that can be linked to microwave standards and counted.

NIST News stories on Frequency Combs

1. JILA Unveils Improved 'Molecular Fingerprinting' for Trace Gas Detection (October 13, 2010)
2. JILA Frequency Comb System Detects Gas Impurities to Aid Semiconductor Manufacturing (August 3, 2010)
3. Scientists Build First 'Frequency Comb' To Display Visible Teeth (October 29, 2009)
4. NIST's LIDAR May Offer Peerless Precision in Remote Measurements (June 2, 2009)
5. Optical 'Frequency Comb' Can Detect the Breath of Disease (February 19, 2008)
6. First 2D Pictures of a 'Frequency Comb' Transform It into a Brush (February 7, 2007)
7. "Frequency Comb" Spectroscopy Proves to be Powerful Chemical Analysis Tool (March 16, 2006)

For further information see:

M.J. Thorpe, K.D. Moll, R.J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J.Ye. Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection. Science, 17 March (2006).

J.L. Hall. Defining and measuring optical frequencies. Nobel Lecture, 8 Dec. 2005, available at: http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/2005/hall-lecture.html.

J. Ye and S.T. Cundiff, eds. Femtosecond optical frequency comb technology. (Springer, New York, 2005).

Femtosecond lasers for optical clocks and low noise frequency synthesis," in Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology: Principle, Operation, and Application, J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Eds., Springer, New York, p. 225 (2005).

R.J. Jones, K.D. Moll, M.J. Thorpe and J. Ye, Phase-coherent frequency combs in the EUV via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005). (Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol 94, No. 19, Cover Figure.)

S.T. Cundiff and L. Hollberg. Absolute Optical Frequency Metrology in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics (.pdf; download Acrobat Reader), B.D. Guenther and D.G. Steel, eds, (Academic Press, 2004).

A. Marian, M.C. Stowe, J. Lawall, D. Felinto and J. Ye, United time-frequency spectroscopy for global structure and dynamics Science Express, Nov. 18, 1105660 (2004). Science 306, 2063 (2004).

L. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S.A. Diddams. Optical frequency synthesis and comparison to uncertainty at the 1019 level (.pdf; download Acrobat Reader). Science, 303, 1843-1845, (2004).

J. Ye, H. Schnatz and L.W. Hollberg Optical frequency combs: from precision frequency metrology to optical phase control (.pdf; download Acrobat Reader). IEEE J. Selected Topics Quantum Electronics 9, 1041 (2003). (Invited)

S.T. Cundiff and J. Ye Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs. Rev. Mod. Phys.75, 325-340 (2003)

S.T. Cundiff, "Phase Stabilization of Ultrashort Pulses," J. Phys. D 35, R43-R59 (2002).

S.T. Cundiff, J. Ye and J.L. Hall. Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers. Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 3749-3771 (2001).D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J.L. Hall, and S.T. Cundiff. Carrier envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis (.pdf; download Acrobat Reader)," Science, 288, 635-639, (2000)

S. Diddams, D. Jones, J. Ye, S.T. Cundiff, J.L. Hall, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Hänsch. Direct link between optical and microwave frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb (.pdf; download Acrobat Reader), Physical Review Letters, 84, 5102-5105, (2000)